Ariets Research Blog

May 3, 2015

Studies of Bertil Lundman

Filed under: -Plates, -Typology, Africa, America, Asia, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:21 pm

Bertil Lundman

  • “The Living Races and Peoples of Europe”, download here.
  • “Race, Language, and the History of Peoples”, download here.
  • “Racial history of Scandinavia”, download here.
  • “Racial history of Near East”, download here.
  • “Anthropological study of Finland”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of India”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of South East Asia”, download here.
  • “The Racial history of Europe”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of North and Central Asia”, download here.
  • Race Mixture and Facial Elongation “, download here.
  • “Swedish gypsies”, download here.
  • “The Distribution of Anthropological Traits in Europe”, download here.
  • “Anthropological maps of Scandinavia”, download here (account required)

The blond brachycephals of Central Europe

Filed under: -Typology, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:11 pm

Nikolai Nikolaevich Cheboksarov

If pigmentation and cephalic index are used as delimiting traits for our first orientation in the racial composition of the contemporary Germans, then the major part of Germany’s population falls into the category of blond brachycephals. But this inclusive designation brings together a great variety of anthropological complexes, morphological and genetic. Within the confines of Germany there is a distinct division into at least two groups which are relatively light and broad-headed, and well-localized geographically. In the northern region, in Schleswig-Holstein and partly in Hanover, there is traceable a combination of tall stature (173- 174 cm), moderately light hair (50-60% fair and flaxen), very light eyes (up to 75-80% gray and blue), long and extremely broad cranium (transverse diameter ca. 160 mm, cephalic index 82-84), very broad and low face (bimalar breadth 144-146 mm, height 119-121 mm), moderately leptorrhine nose with straight or convex back. This combination is most strongly expressed in the population of the island Fehmarn and the district Probstei. It also predominates in the southern Dithmarschen region, on the island of Schlei and in Schwansen, on the Elbe island of Finkenwärder, partly in the southern Lower Saxon district of Duderstadt. Here belongs probably the population of the region of the mouth of the Elbe and of the Weser. In a work on the blond racial types of Eurasia, I have proposed to name the type described “West-Baltic”. In the northwest it is strongly mixed with sub-Northern elements.

The authenticity of both types is confirmed by analysis of the rank-coefficients of correlation between the fundamental racial traits of six groups of inhabitants of Schleswig-Holstein and northern Hanover, investigated by Saller. Almost all the coefficients agree among themselves, and they point to the interreactions of two complexes: 1) one taller, brachycephalic, low- and broad-faced, and 2) one shorter, dolichocephalic, long- and narrow-faced. The first complex (West-Baltic) is centered predominantly in the east of the area under examination (Fehmarn, Probstei); the second (sub-Northern), in the west (Emden).

Morphologically the West-Baltic type is so peculiar that it must be considered as an autonomous race of the second order, entering into the extensive zone of depigmented Europoid forms. The West-Baltic complex is very sharply set off from the Northern complex: it is characterized by much greater transverse cranial and bimalar diameters, less facial height (in similar statures), more prominent cheekbones, a much lower nose-bridge, a stronger development of the superciliaries, etc. It differs from the East-Baltic type in terms of an increase of stature, longitudinal, transverse, and bimalar diameters (in similar statures) and a much greater massiveness in the entire facial skeleton.

Beyond the confines of northwestern Germany the West-Baltic complex occurs distinctly in East Prussia among the half-Teutonized Couro-Lithuanian population. In a weakened and dispersed condition, the peculiarities of the element under consideration are traceable in a large number of north-European groups, chiefly of the Baltic shores, for instance among the Danes of the island Fane, Samsø, and the Faröer, among the Swedes of the island Ruhnu, among the Livonians, and the Estonians of the Sõrve peninsula of Saaremaa island. All these groups are distinguished by tall or above-average stature, light pigmentation, large transverse and especially bimalar diameters, and rather low facial height. It is very likely that their racial appearance has been compounded as the result of mixture of the Northern type with the West-Baltic, similar to what is seen also in northwestern Germany, for instance, in the Dithmarschers or Flensburgers.

As we advance into southern Germany the West-Baltic complex gradually is replaced by others, also brachycephalic (cephalic index 83-85) but shorter (165-167 cm), and darker (about 60-80% dark hair, with 40-50% light eyes), with smaller absolute dimensions of skull and face, marked chamaeprosopy and strongly predominant curvature of the back of the nose. The indices of rank correlation, calculated for 13 male series of Germany, described by Saller, yield between them a high degree of correspondence, differentiating the described variant, which morphologically is almost identical with the Central European race of Bunak, from the West-Baltic type.

The Central European type is most distinctly manifest in the Bavarian and Franconian groups, especially in the region of Keiperbucht. It predominates also in Hesse, southern Hanover, Thuringia, Saxony, probably also in Silesia, and among the Germans of the Sudeten country. The Central-European type forms likewise one of the fundamental racial components in the population of northwestern Switzerland, in many regions of the Tyrol, in Burgenland in eastern Austria (Lebzelter). It is extremely likely that this complex is the chief anthropological element in all central and southern Germany.

Like all the other racial types which enter into the composition of the German population, the Central-European element has no specific connections with the Germans whatever. In the anthropological literature there has long been recorded the wide distribution in Europe of types similar to those that predominate in Germany. Even Collignon (in his day) wrote of the peculiar race of Lorraine — tall, blond and brachycephalic.

Within the boundaries of Germany the combination of low face with sharply-defined brachycephaly and moderately light pigmentation is encountered not only among the Germans but also among the Sorbs who have survived in Brandenburg and who speak a West-Slavic language.

In color, the Central-European race approaches the North-Baltic depigmented Europoids. The combination of light eyes with relatively dark hair also points to the transitional character of the Central-European race. Confirmation of this view is found also in the fact that forms which are close to the Central-European type are widespread not only in western but eastern Europe. The moderately light and short-headed Valdai complex which predominates among many Russian and Ukrainian groups is morphologically very similar to the Central-European. For instance, on comparing the data on Sudeten Germans described by Knöbl with those of the Ukrainians of the Kotov region (Ukraine) investigated by the author, one is struck by the anthropological similarity between the two groups.

April 28, 2015

Sub-race distribution in Wales; from H. J. Fleure and T. C. James

Filed under: -Celts, -Plates, -Typology, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:40 pm

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-Geographical Distribution of Anthropological Types in Wales.Posted Image
H. J. Fleure and T. C. James
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
Vol. 46, (Jan. – Jun., 1916), pp. 35-153

Plates from Mankind So Far by W. Howells(1947)

Filed under: -Plates, -Typology, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:39 pm

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April 25, 2015

Keltic type of E.A. Hooton &C. W. Dupertius from “Physicial anthropology of Ireland”

Filed under: -Celts, -Plates, -Typology, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 8:47 am

The Keltic type is the second oldest in Ireland 3.36 years above the mean age. The type is 0.60 pounds below mean Irish weight, but does not deviate significantly from average stature. The thoracic index in this type is significantly high, because the chest is deep relative to its width. It is exceeded in this index only by the small Pure Mediterranean group. Head circumference is markedly low since head breadth is meager and head length, although large, fall below the of the numerically strong Nordic Mediterranean type. The cephalic index 76.59 is the minimum for Irish types. Head height is lower than that of any other type save only the Pure Mediterranean. The length-height index is next to the Irish minimum, while the breadth-height index is significantly high although exceeded by two Nordic types and the Nordic Mediterranean type. The forehead is very narrow and the front-parietal index high. The bizygomatic diameter is depressed, but significantly higher that the average values found in the Nordic types. The cephalo-facial index is higher that that of any other type save only the Nordic Mediterranean. The bigonial diameter is somewhat low and the front-gonial index is highest for Ireland. The gonial index is moderately elevated. The high facial index 91,1 is exceeded only by that of the Predominantly Nordic type. The upper face is particularly long. The upper facial index average demonstrates that this type has relatively the longest and narrowest upper face. Noses are a trifle long, probably in part an effect of advanced mean age and also they are a trifle broader that average. Thus the nasal index is also a little above average.

The Keltic type is very light-skinned, although exceeded in this respect by the three blond types. It falls below these types only in pronounced vascularity. The type is relatively low in freckling and also has fewer moles. All kinds of hair form occur, with low waves in the modal position. However, the Keltics present the strongest assemblage of straight-haired individuals to be found in any Irish type, save the Pure Nordic. Baldness and graying of head and beard are excessive in this type doubtless because of the high average age. The modal hair color (46.9%) is flat brown, but a strong minority (39.7%) has dark brown hair, and red-haired contingent amounts to 5.7%. In darkness of hair pigmentation, this type is exceeded only by the small group of Pure Mediterranean’s and by the large Nordic Mediterranean group.

All Keltics have pure blue or gray-blue eyes. Almost 54 per cent of Irish blue eyes belong to members of this Keltic type, although the type constitutes only 25.3% of the Irish type series. Irises with scalloped patterns reach their Irish maximum and clear irises are greatly in excess. External eye folds are slightly more that ordinarily common in this type. Upward slant of the eyes slits is more frequent in the Keltic type than in any other except the Pure Mediterranean. Variations from medium height of eye openings, when they occur at all, are low more that is ordinarily common, but these are not characteristics. This type has a higher percentage of persons with pronounced brow ridges that any other Irish morphological type. Foreheads incline toward the more sloping forms. Nasal depressions tend to be deep; straight nasal profiles slightly exceeded the convex form. Membranous lips are rather more than ordinarily thin. Teeth loss, wear, face shortening by tooth wear, and caries are at the maxima in these Keltics, but, reasonably, this condition must be attributed to the high mean age of the type. The Keltic type is average in frontal projection of the molars and is high in medium lateral projection. Gonial angles are infrequently prominent. Hollowness of the temporal region is a distinct feature as is also marked occipital protrusion. Although lambdoid flatting occurs in nearly three-fourths of the Keltics, this feature is less common in the Keltic morphological type that in any other. Occipital flattening is relatively infrequent.

 

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April 22, 2015

H. G. Wells – “The main races of man kind” from his “The outline of history”

Filed under: Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 8:57 pm

Figure 109

Figure 109: Heads of Australoid Types

It is only in the last fifty or sixty years that the varieties of men came to be regarded in this light, as a tangle of differentiations, recently arrested or still in progress. Before that time students of mankind, influenced, consciously or unconsciously, by the story of Noah and the Ark and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, were inclined to classify men into three or four great races and they were disposed to regard these races as having always been separate things, descended from originally separate ancestors. They ignored the great possibilities of blended races and of special local isolations and variations. The classification has varied considerably, but there has been rather too much readiness to assume that mankind must be completely divisible into three or four main groups. Ethnologists (students of race) have fallen into grievous disputes about a multitude of minor peoples, as to whether they were of this or that primary race or ?mixed?, or strayed early forms, or what not. But all races are more or less mixed. There are, no doubt, four main groups, but each is a miscellany, and there are little groups that will not go into any of the four main divisions.

Figure 112

Figure 112: Negro Types

Subject to these reservations, when it is clearly understood that when we speak of these main divisions we mean not simple and pure races, but groups of races, then they have a certain convenience in discussion. Over the European and Mediterranean area and western Asia there are, and have been for many thousand years, white peoples, usually called the CAUCASIANS, subdivided into two or three subdivisions, the northern blonds or Nordic race, an alleged intermediate race about which many authorities are doubtful, the so- called Alpine race, and the southern dark whites, the Mediterranean or Iberian race; over eastern Asia and America a second group of races prevails, the MONGOLIANS, generally with yellow skins, straight black hair, and sturdy bodies; over Africa, the NEGROES, and in the region of Australia and New Guinea the black, primitive AUSTRALOIDS. These are convenient terms, provided the student bears in mind that they are not exactly defined terms. They represent only the common characteristics of certain main groups of races; they leave out a number of little peoples who belong properly to none of these divisions, and they disregard the perpetual mixing where the main groups overlap.

Figure 113a

Figure 113a: Mongolian Types

Figure 113b

Figure 113b: Caucasian Types

Source & Whole book: here.

April 18, 2015

Russian plates of Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces

Filed under: -Plates, -Slavs, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:00 am

Anthropometric research of male population of the Great Russian Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces – Zograf, 1892

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April 12, 2015

Middle eastern studies of Henry Field

Filed under: Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:41 pm
  • “Contributions to the anthropology of Iran (1939)”, download here.
  • “The anthropology of Iraq. The Upper Euphrates (1940)”, download here.
  • “Arabs of central Iraq, their history, ethnology, and physical characters (1935)”, download here.

April 11, 2015

Nordic-Mediterrean type of E.A. Hooton & C. W. Dupertius from “Physicial anthropology of Ireland”

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ariets @ 8:17 pm

The Nordic Mediterranean type is 0.60 years above mean age, ranking third. It is virtually at the all-Irish mean of weight, and, in fact, nearly average in most bodily dimensions.
The chest index is somewhat elevated, signifying a relatively deep and narrow thorax. However, the Keltic type exhibits this feature in a much more pronounced degree. The longest heads in Ireland are found in this Nordic Mediterranean type. Head breadth, though narrow, exceeds that of other dolichocephalic types, except the Pure Mediterraneans. Head height is superior to that of the Keltics and the Pure Mediterraneans. The length-height index is very low and the breadth-height index high, as in other long-headed types. Face breadth in this type is far inferior to that of the round-headed types, but higher that that of the other dolichocephals. The cephalo-facial index reaches its Irish maximum. Total face height is well above the Irish average, as is also the total facial index. Upper face height is also high. Naturally both total facial and upper facial indices are on the high side and align this type with the other dolichocephalic leptoprosopic types and with the Dinaric type (which has been selected for long narrow noses). In the Nordic Mediterranean type the nose is about of average length, but a little more that ordinary wide. Hence the nasal index is somewhat above the Irish mean, but it is exactly the same as that of the Predominantly Nordic type and really differs very little from the mean nasal index of any other of the long-headed types.

Although skin color in the Nordic Mediterranean’s is darker than in any other Irish type save the small Pure Mediterranean, yet 86.2 per cent of this type have pink skins. Pronounced vascularity is deficient; freckles are slightly less than ordinarily common. The modal hair form is low waved (as in every other Irish type). Hair color is much darker than in any other sizable type, with 4.7 percent of black hair and 52.4 per cent of dark brown. Nevertheless, more that one third of the type has medium brow hair. All of the eyes are mixed -81.3 per cent blue-brown. Mixed eyes are a little more heavily pigmented in this type that in any other. Yet 74.7 per cent of the mixed eyes are recorded as “pronounced light” or “very pronouncedly light”. The most prevalent iris patter is “diffuse” or without marked patterning (by far the most common Nordic Mediterranean). Brow ridges are a little larger that ordinary; foreheads least often high, and a little more sloping that in any other except the Keltic type. Nasal depressions tend toward pronounces depth. The nasal profile is a little oftener straight that convex as in all Irish types except the Dinaric.

Tooth loss, wear, and caries in the Nordic Mediterranean type are somewhat above the Irish average possibly because of an elevation in mean age. Frontal projection of the molars is slightly high, but pronounced lateral projection is less than average. The same structure applies to prominence of gonial features. Pronounced temporal fullness is well below the Irish average. Occipital protrusion, as in other dolichocepalic types, is inclined to be marked. Lamboid flattening is very common, but its occurrence hardly deviates from that of the total Irish series. Occipital flattening is deficient.

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April 4, 2015

Indo-Aryan and Slavic linguistic affinities predate the origin of cereal farming

Filed under: -Aryans, -Slavs, Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 9:57 pm

Another interesing paper about Slavic and Indo-Aryan linguistic connection, although here based mostly on Slovenian language which

appears to be gramatically closer to Sanskrit than other Slavic languages and even Indic languages such as Hindi, Bengali andGujarati.

Authors also mention shared y-dna of R1a1 between Slavic and Indo-Aryan populations. Yet their statement that IE expansion, and therefore Slavs came from India is a bit of a joke if you ask me.

Based on the above mentioned genetic markers, one has to conclude that Hg R1a1 chromosomes came from India and reached the Balkans, before Hg N3 expanded between the Baltic and the Black Seas. Also the expansion of Hg I from the Balkans was impededand did not reach India. All of this is in agreement and supports Out of India Theory (OIT) of the ‘satem’ branch of the Indo-European language family. Furthermore, the domestication of cattle in the Indus valley and no indication of domestication of Europeanaurochs (Edwards et al. 2007) further support the OIT.
Yet most modern day scientists reject Out of India Theory (as well as Anatolian and Armenian hypothesis), which can be simply proved by monitoring presence of R1a1 around India and Europe. And apart from that there is enormous amount of archeological, anthropological and genetical evidence that this is not the case.
Also the thing that worries me a bit is that they still use that synthetic old-fashioned division of Indo-European languages, kentum v satem.
Click here to check that file!
To be honest I think that Out of India Theory currently is simply part of some kind of ethnonationalism.
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