By Stanisław Górny
The purpose of my work was to single out anthropological territories from anthropologicat maps of the military anthropological survey. It was necessary to single ou these territories by means of an objective method, in a manner of one meaning, and not in an estimativ
e manner as was done so far (DENIKER, RIPLAY. CZEKANOWSKI, SCHWIDETZKY and others).
The problem of anthropological map of Poland is not new in our science. CZEKANOWSKI tending towards a synthetic grasp of our anthropological realations look it up several times beginning from 1911; each of his subsequent maps was a more precise conception than the last. These maps were based on several territorial points, determined in the form of anthropological compositions, on the basis of which with a really ingenious intuition and knowledge of the problem this scientist construed the picture of the whole, by means of interpolation.
MYDLARSKI besides many serious works and investigations in our anthropology, carried out the greatest research work, the military anthropological survey. It lasted nearly 18 years and included over 150 individuals. Its elaboration in three volumes ready for printing was burnt during the war. The 11 maps saved by CZEKANOWSKI was the basis of my work.
The difficulty in this work was the transition from anthropometric features to anthropological types, expressed in the form of systematic units, i. e. anthropological compositions. Anthropological types are units of a different order than the category of indices. The characteristics were expressed in 7 classes of arithmetical means for individual districts. It was all I had at my disposal. The primary plan was relatively simple. By the aid of dual dendrite to single out 7 from among 11 characteristics. Then to prepare a table of differences, to draw a dendrite on its basis and a map according to dendrite and to conclude work with its interpretation.
When dendrite did not give the expected solution, I applied the method of sums, then the method of graphical profiles and finally I tried various manners of making a diagram. Unfortunately I did not succeed to solve the undertaken problem by means of any of these methods. To illustrate the way of search for a method, the attention should perhaps be drawn to the table of differences, the dendrite and the graphical profiles.
Only the method of points of reference of WANKE elaborated under the influence of the above mentioned difficulties, enabled me to solve the problem. This method enabled me to calculate in a clearly defined manner the anthropological compositions from arithmetical means of district characteristics. By means of this method may be calculated the percentage of resemblance of particular individuals to the models corresponding to anthropological types (4 in our case). Each district is analysed with reference to thest 4 “ideal” types, hence the name of method ? points of reference.
From the obtained anthropological compositions analytical maps of the distribution of particular anthropological elements and a synthetic map of the so called anthropological formation could be prepared.
Our population is characterized by this, that it constitutes the mixture of 4 differenl anthropological elements. The nordic and laponoidal elements constitute its basic components, and each of them has its relative preponderance in individual districts. The mediterranean and the armenoidal elements are the supplementing components provided, that the first admixture appears in principle alongside of the nordic element, and the armenoidal admixture with the laponoidal component.
Map 2 (p. 39) shows the territorial differentiation of districts as regards the nordic element.
Map 3 (p. 40) shows the distribution of the laponoidal component of our population. Both these basic components occur opposite each other, the greatest density of the nordic element being in the north country and the least in the south, while the distribution oi laponoidal element is reversed.
The mediterranean admixture (map 4, p. 41) occurs in considerably greater numbers in the north like the nordic component, with this, however, that its two great concentrations occur in the district of Kutno and in the east in Wiodawa and Biaia districts.
The armenoidal type, on the other hand (map 5, p. 42) concentrated itself in the south and on the west and south-west border of the country. It may be seen from these four analytical maps that the concentrations of individual types occur on the peripheries of the country. In the centre of the country we have a zone, where all elements are mixed and maintain a certain quantitative equilibrium.
Map 6 (p. 43) is a synthetic grasp of anthropological relations and represents the distribution of five anthropological formations. The formations are characterized by certain quantitative relations of individual components.
According to ZEJMO ŻEJMIS the anthropological compositions of formations are as follows:
A E H L
Nordic littoral formation 60 22 6 12
Nordic continental formation 46 17 10 25
Sub-nordic formation 37 15-10 10-15 37
Laponoidal mixed (continental) formation 26 20 25 29
Laponoidal highland formation 29 10 13 48
Nordic continental formation is most numerously represented in Poland, because nearly 70 districts possess its anthropological compositions, whereas the Mediterranean component appears in J0 districts on the second place, the Nordic element occurring in considerably greater numbers. These compositions in the nordic continental territory occur in districts: Morski, Toruń, Inowrocław and Mława, as single islands of nordic-littoral formation. Apart from that we have over the country two, three district groups of the nordic-littoral composition, the Kutno and the Warmia groups. In the north this formation is probably the remainder of the old population relations, closer to anthropological compositions of Scandinavian population and old Prussians. The islands of this formation on the borders of the former Mazowsze, Kujawy and in Łęczyca land confirm the views of CZEKANOWSKI on the Goths migration routes from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
The wide belt running parallel to the line of Carpathians is occupied by the districts with a decided preponderance of the laponoidal element having compositions of lapono-idaf highland and mixed continental formation. This territory includes the compact group of 40 districts, 2 loose districts and 2 towns. The laponoidai element is more ancient in Poland and was driven away by the expansion of the Light pigmented component coming From the north, from more fertile territories to the southern less fertile highland and sub-mountainous districts. In the south along the Carpathians it was still reinforced by the pastoral! Walachs. The Pińcz?w-Jędrzej?w peninsula of this formation running in the northern direction is connected with old colonization of the Świętokrzyskie mountains.
Along the south-east border of the country we see districts with compositions of subnordic formation, which can be explained by the neighborhood of population with i considerable percentage of the Nordic type.
The whole center of the country is occupied by the subnordic formation, which is characterized by the equalization of basic components and admixtures. Map 7 (p. 44) shows in a generalized manner the scope of individual territories. The greatest is the Nordic and the smallest is the laponoidal territory.
All the maps represented here have been, for the first time in Polish anthropology, worked out by objective methods and in a clearly defined manner.
Source: Materiały i Prace Antropologiczne 34, Wroclaw 1961
(Originally posted and scaned by Corda)