By Leiu Heapost∗ & Mart Viikmaa. Very interesing article, with plenty of data and plates.
All the types of study presented in this paper reveal a remarkable heterogeneity of the Estonians. In general, the differences are more impressive in western-eastern direction than in northern-southern direction. Some subgroups of Estonians, especially in the northeast and southeast show peculiarities characteristic of some more eastern Finno-Ugric peoples, whereas the western groups (especially in the West-Estonian mainland) are more strongly associated to the Indo-European neighbours. All that suggests that the Estonians have a complex origin, indicating relations to the Finno-Ugric stem on the one hand, and to the Indo-European peoples on the other hand.
Some combinations of traits and gene frequencies characteristic of Estonians and many other Finno-Ugric populations showing simultaneously “eastern” and “western” frequencies (for example, negative correlation of indexes of Mongoloidness and Pigmentation, the northern gracile odontological type, and some gene frequencies) cannot be explained only by the assumption of Mongoloid admixture to the Caucasoid populations. We suppose that the antagonistic frequencies of different traits are tracks of the original genetic structure of the Finno-Ugric ancestor population, which were not clearly differentiated in Mongoloid-Caucasoid directions.