Ariets Research Blog

May 25, 2009

Phenotypic variation of Polish nobility

Filed under: -Plates, -Slavs, Physical anthropology, Poland — Ariets @ 11:37 pm

Diversity of Polish nobility in pictures, and later with conclusion and links. Specially in PDF file format, done by me.

To download it, click here dude.

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SNPA…

Filed under: -Typology — Ariets @ 11:34 pm

Well, SNPA (The Society for Nordish Physical Anthropology) was completly nordicist website (nowdays its dead link), with completly rubish, fanatic and racist view that came from mixing Coon with McCulluh (racist, and inventor of word “nordish”, lol), guys ware funny in fact, but their fanatism due to typology was incredible stupid and hilarious (their followers, on very few internet boards still follows old school, outdated shite from past and try to “keep it real”, lol).

Click here, for the archive of SNPA.

May 19, 2009

Neoteny and Human Biological Evolution

Filed under: Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 6:59 pm

Article (saved from some crap that left from HBF, by Gareth), on neotenism and its biological meaning, written by Ashley Montagu.

lt is the possibility of escaping from the blind alleys of specialization into a new period of plasticity and adaptive radiation which makes the idea of pedomorphosis so attractive in evolutionary theory. Both its possibilities and limitations deserve the most careful exploration.
—JULIAN HUXLEY

The unique human trait of always remaining in a state of development is quite certainly a gift that we owe to the neotenous nature of mankind.
—KONRAD LORENZ

In surveying the development of the concept of neoteny it becomes clear that the morphological changes in the varieties of humankind have been brought about mainly by the retention into adult life of traits principally characteristic of the fetus. As Sir Arthur Keith put it, the outstanding structural peculiarities of humankind have been produced during the embryonic and fetal stages of its evolutionary history. It is not so much embryonic as fetal traits, however, that are neotenized both in the evolutionary and individual development of humans. In the evolution of humankind from an anthropoid stock, it is easy to see that gradual change from anthropoid to human could have come about by the retention of the generalized fetal form of the anthropoid into adult stage.

Such retention of anthropoid fetal traits would come about in a mosaic manner, that is to say, not all fetal ancestral traits would be retained in descendant forms but only one or a few at a time. For example, in the australopithecines the front teeth (incisors and canines) underwent reduction, while the teeth at the side and back of the jaws (premolars and molars) retained their large size and only underwent reduction at a later time. The space between the canine (eye-tooth) and the first premolar, the premaxillary diastema, for the reception of the projecting canine of the lower jaw, remained quite wide in the juvenile australopithecine and reduced in later australopithecines. In the pithecanthropines (Homo erectus), a group that may well have originated from australopithecine stock, lhe premaxillary diastema is present in the earliest of the pithecanthropines, Homo erectus robustus, even though it is clear that the canine of the lower jaw had undergone reduction. In short, the space in the upper jaw remained, though it no longer served any useful purpose. Nevertheless, in later pithecanthropines the diastema completely disappeared. Another example of mosaic evolution is that while erect posture was attained by the australopithecines, brain size in the early forms did not appear to change much from that of their anthropoid ancestors. From Homo erectus to Neandertal man, through Solo man of Java, to modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens), we proceed by a steplike process to shed one anthropoid trait after another: the large teeth, projecting jaws, cranial crests, massive eyebrow ridges, and facial structures. Simply by stretching out the fetal stages of development and accelerating the rate of development of the brain, the trend is toward the retention of the structural traits of an ancestral fetus. In Figure 7 in the first column we see the skulls of newborn primates ranging from the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) to a European. We see that all of them closely resemble each other. But reading from the bottom row across from the newbom to the adult male in the last column we can see that in the case of monkey and ape there is a marked change from pedomorphic to gerontomorphic form. Evidence of gerontomorphosis becomes progressively much less marked in the human forms, Neandertal, Australian aborigine, and European. lndeed, in these latter forms, as one progresses from Neandertal to European, the trend is markedly toward pedomorphism, the maintenance of the juvenile form of the skull. This would be even more strikingly evident were it possible to show a series of Chinese skulls ranging from newborn to adult males, for in the adult Chinese skull pedomorphism has proceeded further than in any other people. The Mongoloid skull generally, whether Chinese or Japanese, has been rather more neotenized than the Caucasoid or European: The female skull, it will be noted, is more pedomorphic in all human populations than the male skull; this holds true for many other somatic traits and, I have not the least doubt, for functional and behavioral traits as well. In other words, the female realizes the promise of the species rather more fully than the male.

I have listed some thirty neotenous physical traits in humans; some of these are obviously a reflection of others. For example, the globular form of the skull reflects the great increase in the size of the brain, while flatness of face, small jaws, and small teeth are each closely related to the others. Neotenous functional or physiological traits in humans are many.

THE CRANIAL FLEXURE

In the embryo of all mammals and most vertebrates, Bolk pointed out, the axis of the head forms a right angle with that of the trunk; this is known as the cranial flexure. In all mammals, with the exception of humans, a rotation of the head occurs during the later stages of development so that the head assumes an orientation continuous with the direction of the backbone, as for example in the adult dog. Humans, on the other hand, retain the cranial flexure. The visual axis, the line of sight, of both dog and human is horizontal; however, the dog’s body is also horizontal while that of a human is perpendicular. In the adult great apes, being obliquely quadrupedal, the position of the body is in between, and the axis of the head is also intermediate. The foramen magnum, the aperture at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes down into the vertebral canal, is situated rather more posteriorly than it is from the central position it occupies in either fetal ape or human. lt thus transpires that the human erect posture represents the retention in post-natal development of a fetal condition which in other mammals is limited to the period of embryonic or fetal development, that is, a horizontal visual axis and a vertical or perpendicular body. Increase in height and pelvic form are not neotenous, the one being due hypermorphosis, resulting largely from increase in length of the legs, and the other to accommodations to the erect posture.

These are simply statements of fact; they tell us nothing about causation—which is quite another matter, and one upon which we can only speculate. The most probable explanation is that in the evolution of early human the upright posture proved, in the environments in which they found themselves, to be of increasingly great adaptive value. Hence, in such circumstances, changes in the rate of development for the retention of the cranial flexure in relation to the perpendicular body were most likely to be selected.

Against the view that human erect bipedalism has been made possible by the retention of a neotenous fetal relationship between the cranial flexure and body axis is the argument that changes in the pelvic girdle, the lower extremity and foot, and the differences in muscular attachments, especially the gluteus maximus (the large muscles of the buttocks), render it unlikely that neoteny in this connection has any explanatory value whatever. In the first place, it is said, such modifications are never present in the apes, either embryos or fetuses or at any stage of development, and in the second place some of these traits are not even to be found in fetal human. Furthermore, a fundamental feature of the erect bipedal human is the elongated lower extremity, a trait the very opposite of neotenous.

All these criticisms of Bolk’s views are quite sound, but they do not in the least weaken his main argument, for he did not claim that erect bipedalism came into being as a sudden mutation. On the contrary, he appears to have understood that the development of the erect posture was quite gradual. However that may be, the hypothesis of neoteny does not exclude the operation of other factors in the development of the erect bipedal form of locomotion.

When we look at our contemporary primate relatives – the orangutan, the chimpanzee, and the gorilla—and observe the various postures they assume under different conditions, including erect ones, we experience no difficulty in reconstructing the stages through which our ancestors must have progressed to achieve our own erect bipedal posture.

Bolk also drew attention to the fact that the cranial flexure in adult human is paralleled by what de Beer termed the pubic flexure. ln the embryo of mammals the axis of the urogenital structures and rectum is directed downward, but in the adult mammal, with the exception of human, the axis of these structures undergoes rotation so that it comes to lie parallel with the backbone, resulting in a back- ward direction of the vaginal aperture. By contrast, in human the fetal orientation of these structures is retained, so that the vaginal aperture is directed downwards, a principal effect of which is the horizontal face-to-face posture standard in copulation.

THE POSITION OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM

The central position of the foramen magnum at the base of the skull is another unique human feature among the primates. Interestingly enough, in infant nonhuman primates this foramen is more centrally situated than it is in adults. In these animals, during the growth of the skull, and especially of the jaws and face and the eruption of the teeth, the structure that contributes to the posterior and lateral margins of the foramen, the occipital bone, is pushed, as it were, backwards and upwards, so that the axis of the foramen frequently ends up facing backwards almost in the vertical plane. Fascinatingly enough one of our early progenitors in the line from the pithecanthropines to Neandertal man and so on to ourselves, namely, Soto man from Java, possessed a foramen magnum not quite as centrally situated as in modern humans, the anterior part of which was in the horizontal plane, while the posterior half was almost in the vertical plane. In suckling apes and humans the central portion of the foramen magnum is probably associated with the need for the head to be positioned erectly in nursing at the mother’s breast. Here, too, a flat face is an advantage, owing to the peculiar mechanics of the breast feeding situation. It is for the same reason that the jaws remain undeveloped in all suckling nonhuman primate infants who, like the baboons, will later develop a considerable muzzle. Toward the end of the suckling period in monkeys and apes, when weaning usually commences, the changes in the face and base of the skull lead to the gradual posterior positioning and orientation of the foramen. In humans the fetal position and orientation of the foramen remains unchanged. Hence, the infantile stage of development of these traits, as Keith pointed out, has become permanent in humans. It might be thought, judging from the conditions prevailing in contemporary gatherer-hunter peoples, that the prolonged and intensive breastfeeding enjoyed by children in prehistoric societies, generally lasting some four to seven or more years, had some relation to the development of the erect posture in humans. However, since under natural conditions chimpanzees breastfeed for some five years, the principal factors operative in producing the erect posture have to be looked for elsewhere.

THE FACE AND THE FLEXURE

The bones of the face develop quite independently of those of the rest of the skull. The facial bones are the nasal, maxilla (upper jaw), zygomatic (cheekbones), and mandible (lower jaw). Most of the other large cranial bones contribute to the formation of the brainbox, the sides, back, and base of the skull. The frontal bone also makes its contribution to the face as well as to the sides and base of the skull. The facial bones tend to be vertically inclined in humans, whereas in apes they tend to project in a more obliquely forward direction, largely as a result of the projection of the jaws, a condition called prognathism. In the early fetal development of primates conditions are quite different. In them the cranial flexure is found to be such that the anterior portion of the base of the skull is inclined downward, and the face is similarly inclined beneath the base. In the course of fetal development, however, the flexure straightens out, resulting in the apparent projecting jaws characteristic of all primates with the exception of humans. In humans the fetal flexure is retained, and it is this neotenous condition that accounts for the orthognathy or flat-facedness of humans. These views, using somewhat different terms, were set out by Bolk in a 1923 paper, ‘The Problem of Orthognathism.”

Since orthognathy is confined to the early fetal stages of development in the apes, the neotenous mutations that led to orthognathy must have occurred fairly early in hominid evolution.

THE NOSE

These is one feature of the human face which seems rather puzzling. lt is the nose. The human nose is unique among primates, for it juts out like a peninsula left behind by the retreating verticalizing face. In the rush to reduce the prognathic jaw, it would seem, there was a failure to deal with the excess material that remained after the rearrangement of the facial bones. But that is not exactly what happened. Since prognathism makes possible a considerable surface area of vitally necessary mucous membrane within the nasal fossa and its associated structures, reduction of the jaws together with the mucous membranes of the nasal fossa would have constituted a selectively great disadvantage. Hence, the mucous membrane was retained by projecting it outward under cover of that complex organ we call the nose. Whether flat, long, broad, or narrow, whatever its shape, as long as the surface area of the mucous membrane remains adequate for the important functions it is called upon to perform during every moment of the individual’s life, it matters not one bit what the external form of the nose may be.

May 18, 2009

Physical type of the Saka

Filed under: -Scythians, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:11 pm

Physical type of the Saka. In Dendogram I the data is taken from male craniometry. The series is divided into two large branches. The group on the right represents skulls with the most sharply manifested Europoid traits. It includes a series of Bronze Age material from the lower Volga river, morphological similar skulls dating to the early Iron age from the southern Siberia Tagar culture, from Ulan Gom in Mongolia, mid-1st millenium BC Scythian material from kurgans in the Dnieper River region, and one of the craniological variations of the Amu Darya Saka. In general, all of the skulls are dolichocephalic, with relatively broad and low faces, low orbits, and sharply profiled facial features. During the Bronze Age this physical type was characteristic of the western steppes populations, occupying the areas north of the Caspian and Black seas. Conditionally we will call this type “Western”.

The series grouped in the left branch of the dendogram is characterized by a different physical type. These are mesobrachiocephalic skulls with a varying degree of face flatness, relatively high faces, high orbits, and a smooth macrorelief of the crania. These facial traits are well represented in Karasuk graves found in the Minusinsk Basin. The same craniological variations are basic to the populations who left behind Saka necropoleis in Kazakhstan, in the foothills of the Altai Mountains, the southern Ural steppe region, and the lower Syr Darya River. This variation has also been registered in some burial complexes on the left bank of the Amu Darya River. Because the peoples of the group are located geographical to the eastern steppes, we conditionally call this type “Eastern“.

The female series of Dendogram 2 reports the same distributional pattern as the male series. This distribution is influenced by the greater flatness of their facial features as compared to those of the males, and by a greater tendency towards brachiocranial type and greater facial broadness. That is, the patterns are affected by a complex of traits which testify to the presence of a Mongoloid admixture, indicating that they probably originated in Central Asia.

Source: Some ethnogenetical hypotheses, Leonid T. Yablonsky (found at AnthroScape forum).

May 17, 2009

Tracing back ancient south Siberian population history using mitochondrial and Y-chromosome SNPs

Filed under: -Scythians, Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 6:45 pm

Abstract: Southern Siberian populations have been the subject of intense works attempting to shed light on the peopling of Siberia. From these works, it appeared that south Siberian populations are the reflect of the complex interactions that occurred at different times between Eastern and Western Eurasian people. According to paleoantropological and modern molecular data, European populations predominated in south Siberia during the Bronze age whereas Asian component began to increase from the Iron age. To test this hypothesis we determined the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups of 29 ancient specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area (Southern Central Siberia) dating from the Bronze and Iron ages. The data obtained supported the hypothesis of the prevalence of Western Eurasian component in Southern Central Siberia in the Bronze age. Moreover, they allowed us to propose a geographic origin of the Krasnoyarsk population during this period.

Source: link (mirror).

May 15, 2009

Ancient R1a1 Siberians ware blue/green eyed

Filed under: Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 2:28 pm

Abstract: In the present study, a multiplexed genotyping assay for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within six pigmentation candidate genes was developed on modern biological samples and applied to DNA retrieved from 25 archeological human remains from southern central Siberia dating from the Bronze and Iron Ages. SNP genotyping was successful for the majority of ancient samples and revealed that most probably had typical European pigment features, i.e., blue or green eye color, light hair color and skin type, and were likely of European individual ancestry. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the multiplexed typing of autosomal SNPs on aged and degraded DNA. By providing valuable information on pigment traits of an individual and allowing individual biogeographical ancestry estimation, autosomal SNP typing can improve ancient DNA studies and aid human identification in some forensic casework situations when used to complement conventional molecular markers.

Source:Pigment phenotype and biogeographical ancestry from ancient skeletal remains: inferences from multiplexed autosomal SNP analysis (link).

Dienekes on that:
This sample was previously tested for Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms.

The pigmentation-related loci tested can be seen in the labels of my post, which should lead you to some earlier studies on them.triangular_siberian_pigmentationMost individuals were found to be most similar to European than to East Asian or African individuals based on these loci, although some (2 from Andronovo) of them were more similar to East Asians or intermediate (1 from Tagar) between East Asians and Europeans.

Interestingly, 1 of the Andronovo Mongoloids (S07) was previously found to belong to Y chromosome haplogroup C(xC3), while the Caucasoid-Mongoloid individual from Tagar (S32) belonged to haplogroup R1a1.

It should be noted that the use of the term “European individual ancestry” does not mean that these individuals were from Europe, as no test to distinguish between European and Asian Caucasoids was performed, and we know from literary descriptions and occasional archaeological remains about the ancient presence of light-pigmented Caucasoids in Siberia.

From the paper:

The genotype for rs12913832 was obtained for 23 out of the 25 samples, and most had the G/G genotype (n=15), which indicates that at least 60% of ancient specimens were probably blue- or green-eyed individuals. The remaining samples had the A/G (n=5) or A/A (n=3) genotypes, which are predictive of brown eye color phenotype.

(title stolen from Polako :)).

May 12, 2009

Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East

Filed under: -Slavs, Fino-Ugrics, Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 10:54 pm

Using principal component (PC) analysis, we studied the genetic constitution of 3,112 individuals from Europe as portrayed by more than 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped with the Illumina Infinium platform. In cohorts where the sample size was >100, one hundred randomly chosen samples were used for analysis to minimize the sample size effect, resulting in a total of 1,564 samples. This analysis revealed that the genetic structure of the European population correlates closely with geography. The first two PCs highlight the genetic diversity corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and position the populations according to their approximate geographic origin. The resulting genetic map forms a triangular structure with a) Finland, b) the Baltic region, Poland and Western Russia, and c) Italy as its vertexes, and with d) Central- and Western Europe in its centre. Inter- and intra- population genetic differences were quantified by the inflation factor lambda (λ) (ranging from 1.00 to 4.21), fixation index (Fst) (ranging from 0.000 to 0.023), and by the number of markers exhibiting significant allele frequency differences in pair-wise population comparisons. The estimated lambda was used to assess the real diminishing impact to association statistics when two distinct populations are merged directly in an analysis. When the PC analysis was confined to the 1,019 Estonian individuals (0.1% of the Estonian population), a fine structure emerged that correlated with the geography of individual counties. With at least two cohorts available from several countries, genetic substructures were investigated in Czech, Finnish, German, Estonian and Italian populations. Together with previously published data, our results allow the creation of a comprehensive European genetic map that will greatly facilitate inter-population genetic studies including genome wide association studies (GWAS).

To download file, click here (mirror).

May 11, 2009

Dna report on Pokrovka warrior women, compared to meiramgul

Filed under: -Scythians, Genetics — Ariets @ 12:00 pm

Source: http://www.csen.org/DNA_Report/DNA.html

May 10, 2009

Europedia on European genetics

Filed under: Fino-Ugrics, Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 12:20 am

[funny shit]

May 2, 2009

Articles from “TurkicWorld”

Filed under: -History, Asia, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 6:06 pm

TurkicWorld is website on general terms of history, roots and culture of Turkic populations. List of topics that are most interesing to me bellow (some of the articles already posted here).

Link: Turkic World.

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