Ariets Research Blog

December 12, 2009

Pigment phenotype and biogeographical ancestry from ancient skeletal remains: inferences from multiplexed autosomal SNP analysis

Filed under: Genetics, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 3:24 pm

In the present study, a multiplexed genotyping assay for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within six pigmentation candidate genes was developed on modern biological samples and applied to DNA retrieved from 25 archeological human remains from southern central Siberia dating from the Bronze and Iron Ages. SNP genotyping was successful for the majority of ancient samples and revealed that most probably had typical European pigment features, i.e., blue or green eye color, light hair color and skin type, and were likely of European individual ancestry. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the multiplexed typing of autosomal SNPs on aged and degraded DNA. By providing valuable information on pigment traits of an individual and allowing individual biogeographical ancestry estimation, autosomal SNP typing can improve ancient DNA studies and aid human identification in some forensic casework situations when used to complement conventional molecular markers.

From the paper:

The genotype for rs12913832 was obtained for 23 out of the 25 samples, and most had the G/G genotype (n=15), which indicates that at least 60% of ancient specimens were probably blue- or green-eyed individuals. The remaining samples had the A/G (n=5) or A/A (n=3) genotypes, which are predictive of brown eye color phenotype.

Source: link.

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December 11, 2009

The Alekseev Manuscript

Filed under: Asia, Fino-Ugrics, Genetics, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:37 pm

by

Geraldine Reinhart-Waller

Table of Contents

Introduction

Lecture 1 delivered on 24 June 1991 – Chapter I: Introduction by Alexseev and Chapter II: Lower Paleolithic in Eurasia

Lecture 2 delivered on 26 June 1991 – Chapter III: Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) in Eurasia

Lecture 3 delivered on 1 July 1991 – Chapter III (concluded) and Chapter IV: Upper Paleolithic in Afro Eurasia

Lecture 4 delivered 3 July 1991 – Chapter IV (concluded)

Lecture 5 delivered on 8 July 1991 – Chapter V: Mesolithic in Eurasia

Lecture 6 Delivered on 10 July 1991 – Chapter VI: Neolithic in Eurasia

Lecture 7 delivered 15 July 1991 – Chapter VI: Neolithic in Eurasia (continued)

Lecture 8 delivered 17 July 1991 – Chapter VI: Neolithic in Eurasia (concluded) and ChapterVII: Bronze Age in Eurasia

Lecture 9 delivered 22 July 1991 – Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia

Lecture 10 Delivered 25 July 1991 – Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia

Lecture 11 Delivered 29 July 1991 – Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia

Lecture 12 delivered 31 July 1991 – Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia (continued)

Lecture 13 delivered 5 August 1991 – Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia (concluded) and Chapter VIII: Iron Age in Eurasia

Lecture 14 delivered 7 August 1991 – Chapter VIII: Iron Age in Eurasia (concluded)

Chapter IX: Celebration and Conclusion

Send mail to Geraldine at waluk@best.com

Source: link.

December 8, 2009

The origins of the Scythians (and early Northern Indo-Iranians)

Filed under: -Scythians, Genetics, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 4:12 pm

The article presents some results of a multivariate analysis of 245 male Eurasian cranial series dating to various periods from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age. These results contradict the commonly held view that certain comparatively gracile (narrow-faced) Bronze Age populations of Southern Siberia and Kazakhstan were “Mediterranean” in the anthropological sense, i.e. Southern Caucasoid. Craniometry provides no support for the theory that those people migrated to Southern Siberia or Kazakhstan from Southwestern Central Asia, the Near East, or Trans-Caucasia. Populations described as “Mediterranean” (the Okunev people of Tuva, the Yelunino, the Samus, and some Afanasiev and Andronov groups) display craniometric resemblance with the Bronze Age people of Southern Russian and Ukrainian steppes, as well as with certain Late Neolithic and Bronze Age groups of Central and Western Europe. These affinities are apparently caused by migrations of Indo-Europeans (specifically Indo-Iranians) from their European homeland eastward, as far as Eastern Central Asia. The return from Eastern Central Asia to Europe of the descendents of one of these groups during the Early Iron Age was probably the principal cause for the emergence of the Scythians on the historical arena.

A.G. Kozintsev

More:  The “Mediterraneans” of Southern Siberia and Kazakhstan, Indo-European migrations, and the origin of the Scythians: a multivariate craniometric analysis

December 3, 2009

Archaeology and Languages in Prehistoric Northern Eurasia

Filed under: Asia — Ariets @ 6:52 pm

The distribution of frequencies of radiocarbon-dated Palaeolithic sites in northern Eurasia shows peaks culminating at 40-30 thousand, 24-18 thousand, and 17-11 thousand years before the present. These peaks are viewed as reflecting the waves in the colonization of that area by Anatomically Modern Humans, originally stemming from Africa and Western Asia. The waves of colonization were triggered by environmental stress that became particularly acute in western Eurasia during the Last Glaciation maximum. The expansion of the mating networks aimed at the avoidance of inbreeding was the primary mechanism of migration. The population of AMH spreading in the eastern direction included “softened” Mongoloid elements. The “dialectal continuum” consisting of Proto-Uralic, Proto-Altaic and Palaeo-Siberianrelated languages formed the principal communication media of Early Modern Humans in northern Eurasia.

Pavel M. Dolukhanov, School of Historical Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Click here for more.

December 2, 2009

Alma Mater

Filed under: -In Polish, Physical anthropology, Poland — Ariets @ 7:29 am
Jubileusz 100-lecia powstania Katedry Antropologii na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim skłonił redakcję miesięcznika „Alma Mater” do tego, by wspólnie z pracownikami Zakładu Antropologii Instytutu Zoologii UJ przygotować specjalną edycję pisma. Tym bardziej że w tym roku przypada także 90. rocznica tragicznej śmierci etnografa Bronisława Piłsudskiego.
Aby w sposób szczególny upamiętnić te ważne dla krakowskich antropologów wydarzenia, oprócz artykułów dotyczących dziejów Katedry, sylwetek dotychczasowych jej kierowników, działalności naukowej, dydaktycznej i wykopaliskowej jej pracowników postanowiliśmy również zaprezentować część niezwykłego zbioru fotografii autorstwa założyciela Katedry – Juliana Talko-Hryncewicza. To pierwsza tego typu publikacja zdjęć, będących świadectwem syberyjskiej przygody znanego badacza, który podczas pobytu na terenie dzisiejszej Buriacji poza pionierskimi pracami z dziedziny etnologii, archeologii i antropologii terenu Zabajkala zasłużył się także jako lekarz obwodu kiachtańskiego, poświęcając się leczeniu Buriatów i Mongołów. Efektem bogatego życia naukowego Juliana Talko-Hryncewicza są nie tylko liczne artykuły i książki, ale także zabytki archeologiczne przechowywane w petersburskim Ermitażu oraz materiały osteologiczne przekazane na własność Muzeum Antropologicznemu przy Zakładzie Antropologii UJ.
Szczególnym akcentem tego numeru są także unikalne na skalę światową fotografie wykonane przez Bronisława Piłsudskiego, brata Marszałka, który w 1887 roku jako student pierwszego roku prawa na Uniwersytecie w Petersburgu, w wieku 21 lat, zesłany został na 15 lat katorgi na Sachalin. Jego pionierskie badania nad językiem i kulturążyjących na Półwyspie Sachalińskim Ajnów, Gilaków (Niwchów), Oroków oraz tunguskich plemion z dorzecza Amuru są dziś swoistą kopalnią wiedzy dla współczesnych etnologów i antropologów. A jego arcyciekawe, skomplikowane, trudne i jakże owocne w naukowe dokonania życie do dziś stanowi inspirację dla wielu artystów. O Bronisławie Piłsudskim nakręcono kilka filmów w Japonii i kilka w Polsce, w oparciu o zarejestrowane przez niego melodie Ajnów powstał musical dla dzieci zatytułowany Opowieści, które wyszły z wałków wujka Piłsudskiego, a w gmachu Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie umieszczono poświęconą mu tablicę pamiątkową.
Mam nadzieję, że zebrane w specjalnej edycji „Alma Mater” informacje dotyczące uniwersyteckiej antropologii przynajmniej w części zaspokoją ciekawość naszych Czytelników zainteresowanych tą dziedziną nauki, a unikatowe kolekcje zdjęć stanąsię wielką ucztą dla znawców tematu.
Rita Pagacz-Moczarska

PERSONAE

HISTORIA MAGISTRA VITAE

IMPRESSIONES

SCIENTIA

SCHOLARIS

CONVENTIONES

POSTSCRIPTUM

Źródło: Alma Mater, numer specjalny 106/2008 (link)

December 1, 2009

R1a1a7; a signal of Slavic expansions from Poland

Filed under: Genetics, Indo-Europeans, Poland — Ariets @ 1:57 pm

Originally posted by Polako alias David Kowalski at Polish Genetics and Anthropology Blog.


Nature has just published a very interesting article on the discovery of a new type of R1a1a, defined by the M458 marker. The data included in the report firmly puts present day Poland in the driving seat as the place of origin for this lineage, known as R1a1a7. Here’s a nice map…

 


Peter A Underhill et al., Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a, European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 4 November 2009; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194

However, as per above, the authors claim that R1a1a7 has an age of about 10.7KY. This, they say, makes it a signal of migrations carrying agriculture from Central-East Europe to present day Ukraine and European Russia. Unfortunately, that doesn’t make any sense, because M458 is very rare in Scandinavia, which was largely populated from North/Central Europe after the Ice Age. Recent work on the population movements around the Baltic have shown that both R1a1 and I1a moved up from Germany and Poland into Sweden. So why was only one case of M458 discovered up there in this study?


T. Lappalainen et al., Migration Waves to the Baltic Sea Region, Annals of Human Genetics, Volume 72 Issue 3, Pages 337 – 348, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00429.x

My take on what’s happened here is that the authors grossly overestimated the age of M458, by about three times. The real figure is probably somewhere between 3 and 4KY. So it’s pretty obvious what we’re dealing with here are the various migrations of Slavs around Central and Eastern Europe, probably starting in the upper Vistula basin. These population movements took place well AFTER previous waves of R1a1 moved north and west from or via present day Poland.

Based on their inflated age and expansion time estimates for M458, the authors also conclude that it’s unlikely there were any major post-Ice Age movements from Eastern Europe to Asia. This implies they trust their own methodology more than the recent results of ancient DNA studies, which clearly showed that European groups carrying R1a1 migrated in a big way to South Siberia during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (see here). Indeed, the west to east movements of these Scytho-Siberians were also tracked by a recent cranial study of their remains (here). So well done on finding the new R1a1 marker, but geez, there’s something not quite right there with those haplogroup age estimates again. When will that change I wonder?

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