Ariets Research Blog

January 28, 2015

Subgrouping Indo-European: A fresh perspective

Filed under: Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 10:40 am

Just another interesing study on indo-european languages, and their similarity according to Automated
Similarity Judgement Program. Here’s link.

For several reasons the Indo-European languages present significant challenges to
subgrouping. First, the long research history is an advantage in terms of data and research,
but it also represents a complication resulting from diverging avenues of research and
research traditions. Second, while the long history of attestation is beneficial for historical
research, because of the time depth of available data, the unbalanced distribution of
attestation and the fact that the time depth of attestation is frequently still insufficient pose
particular problems for subgrouping. And third, there are special issues in subgrouping Indo-European which make it doubtful whether the family has clean binary splits above branch-level.  Rather, it seems to be the multilateral affinities among the Indo-European languages and branches which point to a different genesis.  As a result, there appears to be a bit of a
deadlock in this area, which may well be broken by new approaches, such as the Automated
Similarity Judgement Program (…)

Advertisements

January 27, 2015

Odtworzyli twarz wojownika z epoki brązu. Jego grób był pod Hrubieszowem

Filed under: -History, -In Polish, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology, Poland — Ariets @ 12:40 pm

Naukowcy z Katedry i Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej UM w Poznaniu zrekonstruowali twarz mężczyzny z epoki brązu. Jego grób znajdował się pod Hrubieszowem.

Cmentarzysko sprzed 4 tysięcy lat zostało odkryte w Rogalinie pod Hrubieszowem. Najlepiej zachowany jest szkielet mężczyzny, który w chwili śmierci miał 45 lat. Archeolodzy nazwali go wojownikiem. Dlaczego? – W grobie znaleźliśmy m.in. kilkanaście krzemiennych grotów do strzał, krzemienne ostrze noża lub włóczni, sierp z krzemienia i sprzączkę z kości – wylicza Bartłomiej Bartecki, dyrektor Muzeum im.

ks. Stanisława Staszica w Hrubieszowie. Czaszka wojownika była w tak dobrym stanie, że muzeum pokusiło się o eksperyment – rekonstrukcję jego twarzy. Zadania podjął się zespół badawczy dr Doroty Lorkiewicz-Muszyńskiej z Katedry i Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu. Na co dzień z ich umiejętności korzysta policja, na przykład, gdy trzeba zidentyfikować ofiarę morderstwa. Pierwszym krokiem było zrobienie skanu czaszki w 3D. – Na tę bazę za pomocą specjalnego programu komputerowego nakładane były tkanki mięśniowe – wyjaśnia dyrektor Bartecki. – Metoda wykazuje ponad 90 proc. zgodności z rzeczywistym wyglądem mężczyzny – zaznacza. Nieocenioną pomocą okazały się wyniki badań szkieletu z Rogalina. Także genetyczne. Dzięki nim wiemy, że wojownik miał ciemną karnację, ciemne włosy oraz oczy. – Generalnie cieszył się dobrym zdrowiem. Miał wszystkie zęby, nie odkryliśmy też żadnych znaczących zwyrodnień kości – opowiada szef muzeum w Hrubieszowie. Okazało się jednak, że mężczyzna żyjący na Lubelszczyźnie 4 tysiące lat temu, cierpiał na raka kości. – Nowotwór nie był jednak złośliwy, więc być może nie odczuwał bólu nogi – zastanawia się Bartłomiej Bartecki. Dzięki badaniom genetycznym wiemy także, że niektóre osoby z tego cmentarzyska były ze sobą spokrewnione. Na przykład, w jednym miejscu obok siebie zostali pochowani dwaj bracia lub kuzyni. Najmłodsze dzieci w chwili śmierci miały od 7 do 10 lat. W kwietniu w Muzeum im. ks. Stanisława Staszica w Hrubieszowie odbędzie się wernisaż wystawy poświęconej wykopaliskom z Rogalina. Zobaczymy na niej m.in. szkielet wojownika, a obok dokumentację kolejnych etapów rekonstrukcji jego twarzy. Obok plansz pokazana zostanie multimedialna prezentacja, przedstawiająca krok po kroku, jak powstawał wydruk czaszki w 3D. – Na razie nie zdradzamy wszystkiego. Pełny efekt rekonstrukcji zaprezentujemy dopiero na naszej wystawie – zapowiada dyrektor Bartecki. Na tej podstawie zostanie sporządzony odlew głowy wojownika. Manekin dostanie “do ręki” kopię jego narzędzi. Badania cmentarzyska w Rogalinie nie zostały jeszcze zakończone. Może okazać się, że odkrycie 12 pochówków to dopiero początek.

Źródło: Kurier Lubelski.

Autorka: Małgorzata Szlachetka

January 26, 2015

The European Races after Egon v. Eickstedt

Filed under: -Typology, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 3:17 pm

1. The depigmented Northern forms

Within all o humanity there are only two varieties with low pigmentation and all of them are found within the Europid racial circle, which is by no means self-evident. They are a group of boreal mutants of hominids that emerged only once in a boreal environemnt. The environment was the most important factor their formation. This appearance has only influenced the groups living there, that means the inter- or post-glacial inhabitants of close-to-the-ice Central Asia. The connection of the environment to the triggering of those mutations and the biological parallels to the other depigmented mammals which arose out of the same conditions and areas is thus obvious. We call those hominid races resulting out of this the Nordic and the Osteuropid (or East Baltic) race.

1.1 The Nordic Race

Because of their remarkable lack of pigmentation, which manifests in blue instead of brown eyes, blond instead of black hair and pink-white-ish instead of brown-ish skin, the Nordic race was already described as a special form of humanity very early. Despite the aversion of the intellectual elite of Europe against scientific explorations of their own corporeality it was uniformally recognized soon. Its connection to the Northern areas of our continent is so obvious that also the naming was never a point of much discussion. In older times it was occasionally still termed “Teutonic”, “Kymric”, “Germanic” or also even “Indo-Germanic” race but now usually only the name suggested by Deniker is used: Nordic (Nordid) race.

Type. Next to the lack of pigmentation the most defining body features are its tall stature and slender constitution, the long face with the narrow and extremely high nose and the medium-long cranium with its moderately slopping forehead. Some local forms can also have long heads (England), some others have short heads (Frisians). Additionally, wavy hair can be found everywhere.

The eyes are medium-big. Often the fold of the upper eyelid sinks down deeply in a distal direction at higher age. The nose is high-rooted with a straight bridge, a harp ending and narrow wings. Very remarkable is the facial profile. Its cross-section shows a sharp and at the the sides compressed form. This is caused by the extremely flatly adjoining cheekbones on one hand, and on the other one by the nose which is jumping out of the face from a high position. Only the Dinaric race reaches a similar frontality of the cheekbones. The lower face of the Nordic race usually shows a strong mouth with often narrow and almost always very red lips and a forcefully, projecting, and not rarely angular chin. A great number of those traits must be considered highly progressive. In the Nordic race, the basic Homind type experienced on of its strongest specializations.

Nordic skulls are not that easy to separate from Mediterranean ones, especially when it comes to pre-historic material, because in earlier times the long forms were more common in Nordics (Reihengräber type). This is a very similar to the case of distinguishing tiger and lion skulls in zoology. Here and there the differentiations of the forms comes basically from the soft parts and the integument. But the cranial differential diagnosis Nordic-Mediterranean is historically important. Some differences must be named. The Nordic skull is, in general, rougher and heavier and the face is sharper, compared to the Mediterraneans. Also, the jaw is stronger in almost all Nordic local forms, the face higher, more massive, broader in the upper parts, and the brow ridges are more strongly developed. Additionally, – if possible – metrical group comparisons often provide notable, numerical hints.

The lean body of the Nordics has a tendency towards skinniness. At well-built individuals one can find broad shoulders with narrow hips. The latter is also, in contrast to the South-Europid forms, also true for young woman and became, spreading from the USA, a post-war (WWI – remark translator) fashion ideal. But the Nordic type, especially when it comes to its lack of pigmentation, has always been some sort of bodily ideal. That is not only caused by the biologically-progressive uniqueness of the Nordics, but also with its historic and social rank. All over Europe, ever since early times and just recently declining in the last centuries, the higher classes of the nations – aristocracy, patricians, landowners, leading military officers etc. – have been remarkable more Nordic than the other classes. That is not only true for Germany, England or France, but also – and partially especially so – for the Southern European states.

Repeatedly, fashion has tried to adjust personal appearances closer to the Nordic type. That was mostly the case for hair color. Because every time the female Spaniards of today powder their face white, that means light, they do not attempt to adjust their race but rather to the higher classes, whose workplace is more in than outside of buildings. It is different with the hair. Already the female Romans of the Imperial Age tried to bleach their hair by dashing it with sea water, taking sun baths or using sapo (= soap, a Gaulish dryer):

“And the Latin hair is dyed by the barbarian foam” (Martial VIII, 33, 20) – “Chatti foam dyes the hair of the Teutons into a glowing blush. Nicer jewelery is provided by the hair of (Germanic) prisoners” (Martial XIV, 26).

Also the woman of the Celtic people of Gaul dyed their hair, what is significant: the ruling class of the Proto-Celts was blond. Well-known is also the artificial , light-blond hair of the dark-eyed female Italians of the Renaissance and the Titian-red of the female Venetians. Even today here in Central Europe the female racial ideal image when it comes to body build and hair color is occasionally enforced by hydrogen peroxide, just in the same way the Indids do it with saffron or hair fat or the Ainu by tattoeing beards. For sure we do not have to right to mock other ideal racial images or the desire to come close to them, just because they are different from ours.

The extraordinary light skin of the Nordics often has a rosy, fresh tint, which belongs to the most characteristic and strange traits of the race. Also the nipples show a clear pink-ish color which appears immensly nude. Altogether, only North-Europids and especially the Nordics can be truly naked, never colored ones, amongst which a nude North-Europid appears embarassing. Usually the skin is pale. The consistency of the skin of the Nordics is rough, coarse, almost grainy, always sturdy, the sweat glands are big and spawn, at higher age and especially in women, a smell, that is pleasant to the own race but is perceived by other racial circles as “pungent and rancid, but individually also differently, soon sweetly, soon bitterly”. That is true for all North- and Central-Europid forms (and shall not be repeated later), and is a typical racial contrast to all the other Hominids. Sexual maturity occurs extraordinarily late in Nordics, but also aging is slower. While the Nordics are still in their prime, the Mediterraneans have already visibly aged and the Indids are just plain old. Very remarkable are also the mental attributes of the Nordic race, but sadly the racial psychological methods are not that sophisticated at this point. Some first beginnings can be found at Günther, Clausz or Lenz.

The description of the Nordic race given so far mainly refers to its most common and first recognized type which can be called the real, or to be more clear, the Teuto-Nordic one. Next to it we have the Dalic type, worked out by Hausschild, Paudler and especially Kern, and finally the Fenno-Nordic type. The last one is closest to the Proto-Nordic element already mentioned in the descriptions of the Asian races, which is, by itself, not really graspable anymore. Recently, Günther wants to establish the Dalic type, under the name “fälische Rasse” (Phalian race), as one of the European main races. There is not much to argue against that because, as it was already established, it is biologically not important whether someone considers greater, or smaller somantically identical groups as “races”. The transistions are always fluid and the graduations from greater racial circles to the smallest local forms and regional types (sometimes emerging local forms) are always there. But then it would also be necessary to let the similarly differentiated and far more widespread Mediterraneans and other body form groups disintegrate into several further races.

With the Dalic-Phalian type everything is more ungraceful and squarer compared to the Teuto-Nordics. The body build is stockier and more hulking, but at the same time of a similar height or even taller. The Dalics are massive appearances, towering and brawny. Although there is a remarkable length of the face, at the same time there is a large breadth, which gives the impression of a facial lowness and large size of the face. Also the eyesockets are low, and their eyes, lying under low set eyebrows, appear small. Their color seems often to be grey, the hair is said to have a tendency towards slight rufosity. The chin is broad and heavy, the chin angle is often extremely protruding and pronounce the square-ness of the facial outline. The coldness and audacity of the Noridics is substitued with calmness and dignity. The most famous Dalic type of our time is the German President von Hindenburg. Especially interesting is the fact that we can trace the Dalic back into prehistoric times, to the Pleistocene.There it slowly merges with the so-called race of Cromagnon, whose basic features the Dalics still have today. Thus, they become an especially clear example of the inconcistency and restructuration abilities of the human body form groups.

The third, the Eastern type of the Nordic race, received the least attention so far. It is that of the Fenno-Nordics, or the Proto-Nordic race. Space-wise it is the most spread and is anthropogeographically and historically the most interesting.But he is also the hardest to get a grasp on. Because it only exists in some small regions of Northern Russia – uner the North Russians and the Mordvinerans – and submerges in the vast numbers of Eastern Turanid and Sibirid elements, just to reappear here and there in the large West-Asian space. It is the retreated cover of the Nordics. It is also defined by a high and lean body build and very light hair and eye. But the harshness of the Teuto-Nordic race and the sheer force of the Dalics is not found in it. The body build can be more described as being angular. Also the hair is not simply blond, but rather of a reddish-blond color. This is especially expressed in the beards, whether it is individuals from the Altai or from Afghanistan. The eyes are also not simply blue or light-blue but quite often watery-blue. The head seems to be shorter than it is at its two brother types. But somatic details about the (almost always scornfully overlooked) Eastern wing of the Nordics are not worked out properly. We will have to wait for further studies.

1.2 The Osteuropid (or East Baltic) Race

Unlike the Nordic race, the existence of the second light-pigmented race of Europe had been disputed for a long time. Although it was already well described by Rudolf Virchow in 1847 and von Retzius in 1878 as the „Tavastland-ish“ type from Finland and was recognized as a brachycephalic, blond type of its own, its presence was often denied repeatedly. But this was only usually the case with researchers who did not have personal experience with the core areas where this race is common.

It was Deniker, a scientist of Russian heritage and well-acquainted with the racial elements of Eastern Europe, who made them part of his Hominid classification system as the „Race orientale“ (or Vistulian race). Rudolf Pösch, as a citizien of Vienna equally aware of this human form, included them as the Eastern race. In his racial analysis of Poland, Czekanowski dubbed them pre-Slavic or Beta-Type. Stolyhwo called them Homo fanotrichus glaucops brachycephalus and Sergi Homo arcticus fennicus. In Russia there existence was never disputed, Tschepourkovsky gave them the name Waldai type in 1903, Bounak „Type baltique“. Rather recently, Hella Pöch talks about a „light Eastern race“ when talking about the Volhynias (1925, – remark.)

Compared to this, in Germany the author (Egon v. Eickstedt – remark.) was almost alone when it came to defending Deniker’s Eastern race. But finally in 1924 Günther follows, after he got to know the race when learning about it by witnessing autopsies in Northern Europe. Meanwhile in Scandinavia Nordenstreng made a case for the Eastern race, calling the East Baltic race. As a Northern European he knew about the term “Baltic Shield”; in the West of there was the Northern race and to the East the Eastern race. Since Günther has already used the name “Eastern” (ostisch) when renaming the Alpine race, he used Nordenstreng’s name. But one has to be careful with the new term; it would be wrong to assume that the Eastern Baltic areas are only inhabited by “East Baltics” or that outside of this region they do not exist. Coming from this, it would also be logical to rename the Nordic race into West Baltic race now. To avoid any confusion, not only with layman, this text will use the clear term “Osteuropid”.

Today there is not much dispute about the name or the race itself, an exception would be Haddon. Occuring in Eastern European populations, those controversies are mainly about the independence of this type. Is it really a type of its own or is it just the result of admixture – basically just a widely-spread local type? In the latter case one will probably not demand a distinct result of applying Mendelian genetics on the traits of their parent population, like it was in the earlier instances of schoolery. In individual cases of inheritance of traits this does only occur to a moderate extent, also in humans, there especially when it comes to the emergence of races this takes a very long time. But one may still expect somatic reminiscences to the parent populations, even when recognizing the consequences of polymery and filtering and the ongoing harmonization as a result of admixture. Also one will also not expect a reversal of the facts known about inheritance, for example the recessive nature of blondness or the heredity of body forms. But both is overlooked by those who propose that the Osteuropids are hybrids of Nordics and Mongoloid(!)-Alpines. Nowhere do the typical Mongolid traits (yellow-ish skin, epicanthic fold, black and stiff hair) appear in Osteuropids, not even in nuances. There is no proof at all that the Mongolian folds (that are in fact sometimes appearing in the Russian population) are not the result of the many Central Asian invasions, which lead to a century-long ongoing Turano-Mongolid elite in Russia. And nobody has ever proven that the recessive blondness changes its nature to being more dominant when mixed with straight dark hair. Considering our experiences (which may not be the final verdicts on that matter) this is highly unlikely.

This was also mentioned by the Finn K. Hilden. There are other points. The Osteuropids are not classically blond, but rather ash-blond. Especially ash-blond hair, the only one which lacks red components entirely, shows an independent physiological trait. A mixture of gold-blond and deep-black cannot explain its emergence. Also the skin of the Osteuropids is nether yellow-ish nor rosy-white, but rather extremely light, with a grey streak (It can be argued that the difficulties of body*hygiene may strengthen that trait but they can definitely not cause it.) Another important fact is the upturned snub nose. In earlier days this was attributed to the Mongolids. Under the thousands of Mongolids of all the subraces the author has never seen one of “Osteuropid noses” in any individual. These kind of noses do not exist there. This is another distinct trait of the Osteuropids. Also the grey eyes are a trait which is concentrated in the Osteuropid trait complex. One can observe them to an overwhelmingly degree in the Russian regiments, in Finns, Ukrainians, Poles and also on the Balkans, even in the mixed regions of Eastern Germany. These are independent accquisitions, a racial marker of a big, geographically and heritage-wise group of hominds, who had been isolated for a long time. Such a group we have to call a race.

Although the Osteuropids are a homogeneous somatic form circle today, this must not have been the case in ancient times of racial history. This restriction provides a room for consolidation with the those who do not recognize the Osteuropid independence. Because MongolOid traits (similiar to those of Mongolids) can be noticed in Osteuropids, next to their distinct traits. On the other hand there are several, even more numerous, Europid traits, thus these individuals must be considered part of the Europid racial circle. Those “Mongoloidisms” one may see in the oblique eye-openings and the forward-deployed cheekbones. How can their emergence be explained? Is it the result of an independent mutation (or as a better term, a peristatic transformation, in the way of Osborn, 1927) of a Europid population, e.g. one out of the short-headed belt? Osteuropids are short-headed. But this is just a hypothesis.

Not an hypothesis but reality is that Osteuropids live and have lived in the borderlands of Europids and Mongolids and it is not just an assumption but an obvious fact that everywhere were great races meet each other vast areas of contact forms can be found. Even at the time of the emergences of the modern races – which are anything but static and stable constants – in those areas those various tendencies of differentiatial development already interacted. This does not concern, like it was already hinted at with the blond hair of the Nordics, the groups of todaywe can unite as races because of their trait combinations, but simply a form circle that has the biological and geographical potential to develop into them. As strictly as one must deny the term “Mongolian admixture” when it comes to the Osteuropids of today; when it comes to racial history it is entirely possible (and in my opinion the only explanation of the obvious facts) that the early occurance of heritage tendencies we can call “Mongoloidisms” played a part in the formation of the Osteuropid type. Transistional traits and races exist, there is no clear cut in nature in the way we would want to have (and need) it when working in our labratories or at our desks. Followng the racial movements in the European space wil provide the geographical opposition to the described genetic approach. The Osteuropids are thus a typical intermediate form, an independently differentiated and developed body form group out of the contact area of the North-Europid-directed and “East Asian”-influenced proto-Hominids. That this Osteuropid race is entirely Mongolid has only been proposed once, as a counterargument against my contact form theory. But this was widely denied.

Type. The most important body traits have already been mentioned. Most defining are the ash-blond, plain and soft hair (Günther says: taut-ish hair, the question is still open), the grey or grey-ish blue eyes, often watery (which is why Russians talk about white-eyed Finns), the upturned nose with the broad, bony and somewhat flat face and finally a moderately short square head with a stocky, medium-sized body.

The head is big, compared to the body, what reminds one of child-like proportions. Also the body build itself, although very sturdy and muscular, shows infantile resemblances, because of the long torso and short extremeties. Because of the broad forehead and the massive jaw the face often appears square and crude. Compared to this the nose is primitive: it is of small size, the tip is round, upturned and relatively broad. Because of the low root the impression of flatness is strengthened, although the main cause of this is the (not very strong) frontality of the cheekbones. That already becomes clear when looking at a skull. Because of the small and (less frequent) oblique eye-openings the eyes appear small. The mouth is big. Like the Nordics, the Osteuropids are late-blooming, but they age faster. Sometimes they develop very strong wrinkles, comparable to those of the Bushman and Tibetian faces. Their traits are less progressive than those of the other European races, with the expection of the Alpines. Thus, they are a phylogenetically ancient type of the Europids.

2. The Central Belt of Short-Heads

The assumption that the European groups of short-heads pushed between the groups of long-heads like a wedge, coming from the East, is often made. This image is plastic but wrong. The European long-headed forms were not seperated from each other by short-heads, instead they had been genetically and geographically seperated forms for a long time. The deceiving wedge-like shape resulted out of the racially-historically younger movements in the Russian space. The dark short-headed groups go from the South-East towards Europe like a broad ribbon, towards the West more and more dissolved, in the East more tenaciously far-reaching in younger times. Originally they were a form of the mountainous forest lands, just like the Nordics were one of the flat terrains and the Osteuropids one of the humid depths. It is not the environment that influenced the spreading of the race through some mysterious mechanisms. It is rather bound bound to a specific feeding ground through its own way of doing economics; the recent historical movements of the old races have not reached a degree that would blurry the discovery of the ethnogeographically proto-homelands (the areas where the differentiations happened in younger racial history).

The Central European belt of the dark short-headed races, which were called simply „Alpine“ by Ripley (what is also still done by many English-speaking authors), is, for practical reasons, best seperated into two races. Those are the Alpines (in the true sense) and the Dinarics (Dinarids). There is a fundamental difference between them: One is primitive, as much as one can even talk about primitive forms considering the strong selection and the consequences of the lack of post-glacial protection of Europe against the East. The other one is progressive, and that to a degree that is otherwise only reached by the Nordics and perhaps some Mediterranean local types. Thus, here in the short-head belt we find a return of the phylogenetic relationships of the Northern belt: here and there we find a more strongly differentiatied, and a phlyogentically more ancient form.

2.1 The Dinaric Race

was defined by Deniker in 1989 which was not opposed by Ripley. But because of didactic reasons – and it is this didactics that brought lots of progress to racial science – the latter decided not to include the Dinaric (or „Adriatic“) type into his European three-way scheme as a new race. But especially contrasted to the Alpines no one can doubt the justification of the Dinarics as a seperate race. Not only are there large differences in the degree of progressive differentiations between the two body form groups – both are extremes within the European racial circle – but also when it comes to unique traits, e.g. when it comes to the skull, nose shape, chin and facial profile. Thus one can safely seperate Dinarics from their Western short-headed neighbors. Another matter is their relationship to their Eastern neighbors in the short-head belt, the Armenids. Following Eugen Fischer almost all authors consider both „sister races“. Kern gives them the umbrella name „Tauric group“, and all highlight the great similarities, the geographical closeness and the obvious biodynamic connection. Thus, why seperate them into two races?

Now, the situation is not like one can simply view both body form groups as identical twins. Certainly both are part of the central short-head belt of the greater Europid race, and they are certainly closer to each other – including many Turanids – than they are to modern Alpines. But they are not only geographically separated but they also took different paths when it comes to differentiations. Looking at the Dinarics, we will find lean, very tall individuals. Compared to this the Armenids are stocky and only of medium height. In the former we find hooked noses, in the later bulbous ones. In Dinarics we find roughness, while Armenids are more fleshy. The former have longer facial profiles, the latter ones’ are shorter. The habit of both groups is totally different. Wooded areas here, dry steppe there. They do not have a common history. Thus, one may find it justified to talk about two races and not only of two local forms.

Type. The most remarkable trait of the Dinaric body build is its considerable height, the extremely short back of the head and the extraordinarily high, long and often hooked nose. In all those traits the Dinaric reaches the most possible extremes within the hominids; it is one of its highest specialized form.

The lean and tall appearance is accompied by a long and narrow face, a long and high nose, long ears, long legs and a narrow torso. Thus the body build is highly harmonious. It is a racial maximum of the normal, constitutional longitypes (the most extreme in that regard are the Nilotids). This harmony can be occassionally disrupted by their pronounced racial special traits (which would not be the case in Nordics and Mediterraneans). That is especially true when it comes to the, as Montandon remarks, their (literally) most „prominent“ trait – their square and hook-like noses. Additionally, this can also be true for the high and often massive chin. Such individuals can appear almost pathological, resembling acromegaly. The height of the head and its extremely flat „planoccipital“ back – one can usually make Dinaric skulls stand on it – not seldomly reach the forms that we call „tower skulls“ and not consider the result of normal development. In earlier days, the shortheadness of the Dinarics were often pronounced through the uniforms of Austrian officers (who often came from Dinaric areas). One could draw a vertical line from the upper edge of the back of the high hat to the ground without touching something. That was especially true when it came to Bosniaks. In the Dinaric „textbook population of Montenegro“ the group average of the cephalic index reaches 88.6 which is unmatched.

The eye (the opening) is of medium size. The lower face is supposed to be fleshy, according to some observers, which I cannot confirm. The lips of the large mouth are relatively small but not as small as in the Nordics. The nasolabial folds show – as it is common in individuals with a long lower face (compare it to the English national type) – are often strongly pronounced. The ears are big.

Compared to the South-Europid forms the Dinaric type is, in most of its expressions, is rough and sturdy. even more than the Nordics. That is also true when it comes to women. When it comes to these traits the Dinarics are tendencially closer the the more massive, Northern body form groups of Europe. But their pigmentation shows a stronger transistion to the Southern forms. Not only are the iris and the usually smooth hair colored dark-brow-ish, also the skin shows a brown-ish tinge and a remarkable ability to create pigments. This is why the Southern Dinarics often show very brown skin. Living under the same conditions, individuals of the Northern forms would show reddish flushing. Dinarics exhibit strong hairiness; even in Dinaric women slight cases of mustache growth are not rare at higher age. The Tyrol (male) beards turned this trait into a feature of beauty, if not as a racial one at least as one of the local type. Bavaria has its own „Defregger“ types.

2.2 The Alpine Race

was described as the Dissentis type, in the older German anthropological literature, named after a Swiss canton of the Alps, were the most recognizable traits of the Alpines occurred to a large degree. At the same time, v. Hölder used the term Sarmatic race, Beddoe talked about the Avernian type and Pruner Bey of a „Lappanoid“ race. The later name is interesting because it shows that the Lappoid connections to the Southern Alpines (or „Alpines in the narrow sense“) had been recognized by earlier researchers. In the following era, his insights were mostly ignored because the Lapps were regarded as Mongolids, as a result of linguistic speculations. The Mongolidness of the Lapps is even still believed by many people today. Just in more recent times, the author (Eickstedt – remark.) got his point of view – that the Lapps are nothing else than an Alpinoid short-headed variant in the North – verified by Polish researchers who call their own territorial Alpine special form „Lapponoid“.

Lapouge created the name Homo alpinus, which replaced the unlucky and almost completely wrong term „Celtic race“, and was then popularized globally by Ripley. The Celtic error happened because Broca (and others) connected the relics of the Celtic language to the short-statured short-heads existing in same „retreat areas“ (e.g. Bretagne). Out of this they concluded that there was once a common bond between them. But the only thing that connected them was the disaster of being excluded from the more fertile areas by more dynamic-animalistic forms (of humans – remark.). Today „alpine“ has been replaced with „ostisch“ (Eastern) by Günther and „dark-eastern“ by H. Pöch because it is assumed that Alpines came from the East. But that is true for almost all European races.

Type. The body traits of the Alpines form a strong somatic contrast to those of the Dinarics. Everything that is high and long in Dinarics is low and broad in the Alpines. The stature is short, the body build is stocky, the arms are short, the face is low, the nose is short and small. The only thing uniting Alpines and Dinarics are only the dark pigmentation and short-headedness. But not even those traits do that in an unrestricted way. On average the Alpine has a lighter brown than those of a Dinaric, the eyes are also not just dark-brown and often almost overwhelmingly grey. The head is not planoccipital but curvoccipital, which means the back of the head is curved (not flat like in the Dinarics – remark.) Thus, here we have two truly different races.

That the proportions (short-legged with a long torso) and the small low nose have to be considered as being relatively primitive – as long as we can even talk about different phylogenetic degrees when it comes to the Europids – was already mentioned in the description of the Osteuropid traits. This is even more true when it comes to the Alpines. But the child-like (infantile) type is a lot more common in female examples. From an ontogenetic point of view this is not hard to understand. Because in women growth, and thus the individual differentiation, stops earlier than in men. The Alpine male is thus more heavily specialized than the Alpine woman which shows more well-developed Alpine traits. They can be more easily recongized in them than in the other sex. What happens there is basically an aggregration of the racially primitive traits (of an infantile kind) and the female sexual nature, which also points towards infantile directions. That is why in primitive races women are the „better“ (more typical) representants, be it the Alpines, Weddids or Paleo-Mongolids. Vice versae this is true for the progressive races where the males are the more „typical“, be it Dinarics, Sinids or Silvids.

In the Alpine woman the face is especially low and round-ish; the head is equally especially round and globular, which is especially true when it comes to the area of the forehead and the bumps at the parting of the head; the mouth is especially soft and often convexly curved, in a child-like way. Finally the nose is not only low and small but also broad. Real snub-noses usually only occur in Alpine women, then the nosal bridge is curved too. The same is true when it comes to proportions: the toros is short and stocky, almost ton-like, and does not show the elegant shapes of the Europid longitypes (Dinarics, Nordics, Mediterraneans). While in Central Alpine men the nose can also be relatively small, although not as big as in the more progressive types, they are still defining racial traits in them, just as the large eye distance and the small browridges, just like the roundness, smoothness, the portliness (but not sluggishness) of the general appearance. The eye openings of the Alpines are small. The skin is less pink-ish than in the Northern forms, more pale. It also appears to be thicker. Günther even called their skin „necrotic-like“.

3. The Southern Forms of the Cis- and Transmediterranean area

From the East two races reach into the European space, like we have described earlier. One of them is the Mediterranean race. It occupies the coasts of the Mediterranean sea but not in an equal distribution as there point of gravity lies more to the West. There are all its larger areas of distribution. In the East usually the races that trailed behind them took control of the space: the Armenids in Asian Minor, the Orientalids in streaks all over „North Africa“. The latter of the two is the second Europid Southern form of the European space. It was already discussed in connection with its real center in Arabia, and thus the only description left is the most Western of the Europid dark longheaded forms.

3.1 The Mediterranean Race

Older synonyms for it are the Iberian and the Liguarian race. Deniker talks about a Ibero-Insular, Atlanto-Mediterranean and a Berber race living near the Mediterranean sea. Haddon distinguished between an more ancient Eurafrikanid layer an a younger Mediterreanean one. Günther germanized Mediterranean with „Western“. Already by just looking at those names a row of subtypes can be recognized. To which degree they are justified and to which degree we can already define somatic subtypes (just as in the Nordics) is questionable. The situation is here even more complex than in the North. Let us begin with a description of the most defining and most widespread racial type.

Type. In their entirety they are the most gracile, the most elegant and the most pigmented, darkest race of Europe. Thus, the more Southern a racial belt lies the darker it is. The Mediterrenans usually show more harmonious traits on a regular basis than those in the North, the body build, although of lower height, is lean and well-proportioned, not stocky as in, e.g., the Alpines. Lively is the expression of the big, dark and sparkling eyes. Within the circle of the European racial aesthetes the Mediterreaneans and the Nordics fight for the title of the most beautiful race on Earth. But that is a very relative term.

The head of the Mediterreanean is often long and narrow, much more often than in the Nordics of today. But the cephalic index, even considering the projecting back of the head, usually only reaches medium numbers. Also the face is narrow, harmonious and fine-featured and of an oval, smooth and – downwardly – often a little bit retreading silhouette. The bridge of the nose is relatively high and is relatively narrow but not to the same degree as it is in the Nordics and Dinarics. But just as in them the cheekbones are malar bones are adjoining. The jaw angle is often rounded softly, the ears are small. The mouth is more soft and fuller compared to the other European races, but the chin is equally strong (which is not the case in the related Indids). Altogether the type is gracile, harmonious, agile but certainly not frail or delicate (see the „Conquistador type“ of the Castilian, illustration X).

The hair of the Mediterraneans is wavy and dark-brown, often almost black-brown and always abundant. That is also true for younger individuals, who are maturing earlier than the Northern forms, and also for the women who already show a small mustache at middle age, occasionally even in younger years. Also the eyelashes grow long. Altogether there is a larger differences in the sexes than in the Northern forms. All feminine secondary sex attributes – gracility, fat padding, infantilisms – are more pronounced in Mediterreanean women, especially the biologically very important sexual trait of hip breadth. This pronounces the already racially-based, stronger body contouring even more. Large hip breadth is seen as beautiful, truly feminine and desirable in culturally Mediterranean areas. There is nothing that makes a Catalonian woman more proud than her swaying hips. One must compare this to the Indid female ideal of beauty and contrast it with the Nordic ideal of thinness.

The above description is mainly about the general Mediterranean type which may also be called Gracile-Mediterranean type. (1.)., which is common in Southern Italy, in some areas on the Iberian Peninsular and on the islands of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Next to them (2.) there also exists are taller and also coarser type, which can be seen strongly especially in Northern Spain. A special type of them seems to be the Valencian local type with its very long face and very long nose. On the other hand there seems to be (3.) a general Mediterranean foundation of the Transmediterranean Europids – especially in Egypt, Algier and Tunis – which is an intermediate of the other two forms. Here the skin is also darker, often slightly yellow-ish like in the Indids and very often also with softer traits.

But all those types are hard to recognize in this large and widely distributed mixture. We do not know much about the details at this moment. Deniker’s groups, mentioned in the beginning, cannot be united with those types, they seem to be too abstract and were created out of sparse knowledge of only a low number of traits. Haddon, e.g., considers the Atlanto-Mediterraneans a mixed type. But his own types, the Eurafrican and the Mediterranean, are also not very transparent when it comes to distribution and layering. They were only based on found skulls, not living people. But they can already be seen as parrallels to our observations made above. The first one, the Eurafrican, has been described as relatively tall and corresponds more or less to the North Spanish-Ligurian sturdy local type (2.). It shows a coarser body build, strong browridges, a broader nose, and a large width of the molar bone of the face and is supposed to be connected to the pre-historic discoveries of Combe Capelle, Galley Hill and Brunn I. Also similarities to Cromagnon were noticed*. According to Fleure this is an ancient type which occurs all over the Mediterranean area from North-Abyssinia to Plynlymon in Wales. A subtype of it often shows Negroid affilations like prognathy and tightly curly hair. The second one, according to Haddon the Mediterranean type in the narrow, real sense, represents the younger or more differentiated layer and corresponds to our Gracile-Mediterranean (1.). It shows a more gracile body build, much smaller height and a long-ish oval face.

Summarizing the knowledge about the somatic subgroups of the Mediterraneans we have at this point we may have to distinguish, just like in the Nordics, between three subraces:

1. The Mediterraneans in the narrow sense, the Gracile Mediterraneans, especially in the Northern Mediterreneis and the Western insular area.
2. The bigger and coarser Eurafrikanids of Haddon in various retreat areas
3. the softer, medium-sized Transmediterranids from Marocco to Egypt.

*:“There still remains another very ancient element that has to be noticed whose formal characteristics are close to the discoveries of Hominid fossils from late Mesolithic France. It is the so-called Cromagnon race which is also very important when it comes to the Mediterraneans. Main traits are the extremely low, rectangular eye sockets, the low, broad and square face, the very long, big and characteristically curved back of the head and a remarkable height. Individuals that show these combinations can be found these days, in larger numbers, also in Central France (Dordogne) and the Canary Islands, sporadically all over the Northern areas connected to the Mediterranean Sea where the author has seen them with his own eyes, e.g. in Corsica, and also quite often in Algiers. Here, as with the Berbers in general, they have been recognized very early and this was also interpreted correctly. Their direct connection with the blondness of the Dalics (Dalo-Nordics, – remark.) and thus their relationship to the late-Diluvial swarming out of the Cromagnids or the Dalic race has been recently proved by Fischer. It is likely that this old component played a part in the formation of the Eurafrican and Transmediterranean type.“

January 22, 2015

“Krakus – Cyrus Wielki” – Piotr Makuch

Filed under: -History, -In Polish, -Scythians, -Slavs, Indo-Europeans, Poland — Ariets @ 12:02 am

Przedstawiam Wam fragment pracy doktorskiej p. dra Piotra Makucha, pt. “Od Ariów do Sarmatów. Nieznane 2500 lat historii Polaków”. Do przeczytania tutaj.

January 10, 2015

(DE) Forschungen im Nil-Kongo-Zwischengebiet (1911) von Jan Czekanowski

Filed under: Africa — Ariets @ 10:26 am

Etnographie und anthropologie von zentral afrika.

 

January 8, 2015

Ancient DNA Reveals Matrilineal Continuity in Present-Day Poland over the Last Two Millennia

Filed under: Genetics, Indo-Europeans, Poland — Ariets @ 8:10 pm

While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC – 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000–1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age.

Source & more here.

January 4, 2015

Celto-Slavic similarities

Filed under: -Celts, -Slavs, Indo-Europeans — Ariets @ 9:07 pm

Combined analysis of languahes, historical sources, burial types, architecture and religion reveals that a part of the Gauls called also Celts were in fact a Western Slavic branch consisting of diffrent tribes who inhabited the lands of ancient France, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, etc. These people were responsible for the spread of iron in Central and WEstern Europe and were also the ones to whom the ethnonym Celts was applied for the first time. Unless other andcient testimonies or new archeological discoveries appear, it should be admitted that Slavic tribes inhabited not only Eastern, but also Centreal and Western Europe in the deep antiquity and were strong, highly developed people, who influenced many others. Novel evidence of Slavic presence in Western Europe and British Isles is presented in this paper. Scientific method demands that the opposing arguments and theories have to be considered. Counter evidence and counter arguments are welcome.

Click here to download the file.

Similar paper but in Serbian language below:

Srodnost srpskog i keltskog jezika by Ranka Kuic

Studije Ranke Kuić o srpsko-keltskim paralelema, pionirski poduhvat ove vrste u nas, plod je višedecenijskog naučno-istraživačkog rada. Pored više studijskih boravaka uVelikoj Britaniji, naročitoVelsu, rad na ovoj studiji iziskivao je upoznavanje sa većinomindoevropskih jezika, te kulturom i istorijom Kelta. Sve ovo je omogućilo dr Kuić daznalački sledi veoma često zapletene puteve kojima su keltske reči dospevale u srpski jezik i opisuje metamorfoze koje su u tom procesu trpele.

January 3, 2015

Scythians of the north Pontic region: Between-group cranial variation, affinities, and origins

Filed under: -History, -Scythians, Asia, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 2:47 pm

In recent years, the controversy around the origin of the North Pontic Scythianshas become rather acute among physical anthropologists (Yablonsky, 2000;Kozintsev, 2000; Kruts, 2004). One of the key issues concerns the biologicalhomogeneity of this group. S.G. Yefimova (2000), who, like L.T. Yablonsky (2000),advocates the idea that Scythians were autochthonous and biologically homogeneous,has nevertheless convincingly revealed marked cranial differences between Scythiansof the steppe and those of the forest-steppe. In her view, these differences do notdisprove the local origin of the Scythians and are due to the biological diversity of theTimber-grave (Srubnaya) people, who, according to Yefimova and Yablonsky, wereancestral to all Scythians, as well as to microevolutionary processes that affected primarily the steppe populations. According to an alternative view, the differences aremostly explained by the affinities of the steppe Scythians with nomadic populationsliving in more eastern areas of Eurasia – Sacae, Sauromatians, early Sarmatians(Kruts, 2004) or with the inhabitants of Tuva (Kozintsev, 2000). Both principalgeographic groups of the Scythians – those of the steppe and those of the forest-steppe – appear to be heterogeneous as well.

Apparently, then, the use of the pooled Scythian cranial series is no longer justified. It is even not enough to use the two pooled geographical samples (from thesteppe and from the forest-steppe), as I did in my previous article (Ibid.). Theimmediate task is to examine the internal and external affinities of each localScythian population. The work in this direction has already been started by S.G.Yefimova (2000) and S.I. Kruts (2004).The present article is based on a huge new sample of cranial material from the North Pontic region, dating from both the Scythian period (Early Iron Age) and theBronze Age. Most specimens were studied by S.I. Kruts, whose tireless efforts overseveral decades have greatly augmented our understanding of the population historyof Eastern Europe, and who has generously allowed me to use her unpublished data.It can be hoped that the analysis of local Scythian populations will help us tounderstand both the origins of this people and the factors behind their biologicaldifferentiation. If the principal factor of the observed diversity was microevolution,one can hardly expect that separate Scythian populations would be especially close tonon-Scythian ones by chance, since, theoretically, microevolutionary processes suchas brachycephalization and gracilization cannot result in incidental similarities between unrelated groups over an entire set of traits. This is self-evident with regardto random processes. Therefore, if such similarities are observed, it is more probablethat they reflect true affinities.An additional reason for undertaking the present study was the recentappearance of important archaeological and biological facts which concern theancient Indo-Europeans of Eastern Central Asia and prompt us to revise certainscholarly assumptions.

To download the file click here (more data included).

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.