Ariets Research Blog

May 3, 2015

Studies of Bertil Lundman

Filed under: -Plates, -Typology, Africa, America, Asia, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:21 pm

Bertil Lundman

  • “The Living Races and Peoples of Europe”, download here.
  • “Race, Language, and the History of Peoples”, download here.
  • “Racial history of Scandinavia”, download here.
  • “Racial history of Near East”, download here.
  • “Anthropological study of Finland”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of India”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of South East Asia”, download here.
  • “The Racial history of Europe”, download here.
  • “The Races and Peoples of North and Central Asia”, download here.
  • Race Mixture and Facial Elongation “, download here.
  • “Swedish gypsies”, download here.
  • “The Distribution of Anthropological Traits in Europe”, download here.
  • “Anthropological maps of Scandinavia”, download here (account required)
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The blond brachycephals of Central Europe

Filed under: -Typology, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:11 pm

Nikolai Nikolaevich Cheboksarov

If pigmentation and cephalic index are used as delimiting traits for our first orientation in the racial composition of the contemporary Germans, then the major part of Germany’s population falls into the category of blond brachycephals. But this inclusive designation brings together a great variety of anthropological complexes, morphological and genetic. Within the confines of Germany there is a distinct division into at least two groups which are relatively light and broad-headed, and well-localized geographically. In the northern region, in Schleswig-Holstein and partly in Hanover, there is traceable a combination of tall stature (173- 174 cm), moderately light hair (50-60% fair and flaxen), very light eyes (up to 75-80% gray and blue), long and extremely broad cranium (transverse diameter ca. 160 mm, cephalic index 82-84), very broad and low face (bimalar breadth 144-146 mm, height 119-121 mm), moderately leptorrhine nose with straight or convex back. This combination is most strongly expressed in the population of the island Fehmarn and the district Probstei. It also predominates in the southern Dithmarschen region, on the island of Schlei and in Schwansen, on the Elbe island of Finkenwärder, partly in the southern Lower Saxon district of Duderstadt. Here belongs probably the population of the region of the mouth of the Elbe and of the Weser. In a work on the blond racial types of Eurasia, I have proposed to name the type described “West-Baltic”. In the northwest it is strongly mixed with sub-Northern elements.

The authenticity of both types is confirmed by analysis of the rank-coefficients of correlation between the fundamental racial traits of six groups of inhabitants of Schleswig-Holstein and northern Hanover, investigated by Saller. Almost all the coefficients agree among themselves, and they point to the interreactions of two complexes: 1) one taller, brachycephalic, low- and broad-faced, and 2) one shorter, dolichocephalic, long- and narrow-faced. The first complex (West-Baltic) is centered predominantly in the east of the area under examination (Fehmarn, Probstei); the second (sub-Northern), in the west (Emden).

Morphologically the West-Baltic type is so peculiar that it must be considered as an autonomous race of the second order, entering into the extensive zone of depigmented Europoid forms. The West-Baltic complex is very sharply set off from the Northern complex: it is characterized by much greater transverse cranial and bimalar diameters, less facial height (in similar statures), more prominent cheekbones, a much lower nose-bridge, a stronger development of the superciliaries, etc. It differs from the East-Baltic type in terms of an increase of stature, longitudinal, transverse, and bimalar diameters (in similar statures) and a much greater massiveness in the entire facial skeleton.

Beyond the confines of northwestern Germany the West-Baltic complex occurs distinctly in East Prussia among the half-Teutonized Couro-Lithuanian population. In a weakened and dispersed condition, the peculiarities of the element under consideration are traceable in a large number of north-European groups, chiefly of the Baltic shores, for instance among the Danes of the island Fane, Samsø, and the Faröer, among the Swedes of the island Ruhnu, among the Livonians, and the Estonians of the Sõrve peninsula of Saaremaa island. All these groups are distinguished by tall or above-average stature, light pigmentation, large transverse and especially bimalar diameters, and rather low facial height. It is very likely that their racial appearance has been compounded as the result of mixture of the Northern type with the West-Baltic, similar to what is seen also in northwestern Germany, for instance, in the Dithmarschers or Flensburgers.

As we advance into southern Germany the West-Baltic complex gradually is replaced by others, also brachycephalic (cephalic index 83-85) but shorter (165-167 cm), and darker (about 60-80% dark hair, with 40-50% light eyes), with smaller absolute dimensions of skull and face, marked chamaeprosopy and strongly predominant curvature of the back of the nose. The indices of rank correlation, calculated for 13 male series of Germany, described by Saller, yield between them a high degree of correspondence, differentiating the described variant, which morphologically is almost identical with the Central European race of Bunak, from the West-Baltic type.

The Central European type is most distinctly manifest in the Bavarian and Franconian groups, especially in the region of Keiperbucht. It predominates also in Hesse, southern Hanover, Thuringia, Saxony, probably also in Silesia, and among the Germans of the Sudeten country. The Central-European type forms likewise one of the fundamental racial components in the population of northwestern Switzerland, in many regions of the Tyrol, in Burgenland in eastern Austria (Lebzelter). It is extremely likely that this complex is the chief anthropological element in all central and southern Germany.

Like all the other racial types which enter into the composition of the German population, the Central-European element has no specific connections with the Germans whatever. In the anthropological literature there has long been recorded the wide distribution in Europe of types similar to those that predominate in Germany. Even Collignon (in his day) wrote of the peculiar race of Lorraine — tall, blond and brachycephalic.

Within the boundaries of Germany the combination of low face with sharply-defined brachycephaly and moderately light pigmentation is encountered not only among the Germans but also among the Sorbs who have survived in Brandenburg and who speak a West-Slavic language.

In color, the Central-European race approaches the North-Baltic depigmented Europoids. The combination of light eyes with relatively dark hair also points to the transitional character of the Central-European race. Confirmation of this view is found also in the fact that forms which are close to the Central-European type are widespread not only in western but eastern Europe. The moderately light and short-headed Valdai complex which predominates among many Russian and Ukrainian groups is morphologically very similar to the Central-European. For instance, on comparing the data on Sudeten Germans described by Knöbl with those of the Ukrainians of the Kotov region (Ukraine) investigated by the author, one is struck by the anthropological similarity between the two groups.

April 28, 2015

Sub-race distribution in Wales; from H. J. Fleure and T. C. James

Filed under: -Celts, -Plates, -Typology, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:40 pm

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-Geographical Distribution of Anthropological Types in Wales.Posted Image
H. J. Fleure and T. C. James
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
Vol. 46, (Jan. – Jun., 1916), pp. 35-153

Plates from Mankind So Far by W. Howells(1947)

Filed under: -Plates, -Typology, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:39 pm

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April 25, 2015

Keltic type of E.A. Hooton &C. W. Dupertius from “Physicial anthropology of Ireland”

Filed under: -Celts, -Plates, -Typology, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 8:47 am

The Keltic type is the second oldest in Ireland 3.36 years above the mean age. The type is 0.60 pounds below mean Irish weight, but does not deviate significantly from average stature. The thoracic index in this type is significantly high, because the chest is deep relative to its width. It is exceeded in this index only by the small Pure Mediterranean group. Head circumference is markedly low since head breadth is meager and head length, although large, fall below the of the numerically strong Nordic Mediterranean type. The cephalic index 76.59 is the minimum for Irish types. Head height is lower than that of any other type save only the Pure Mediterranean. The length-height index is next to the Irish minimum, while the breadth-height index is significantly high although exceeded by two Nordic types and the Nordic Mediterranean type. The forehead is very narrow and the front-parietal index high. The bizygomatic diameter is depressed, but significantly higher that the average values found in the Nordic types. The cephalo-facial index is higher that that of any other type save only the Nordic Mediterranean. The bigonial diameter is somewhat low and the front-gonial index is highest for Ireland. The gonial index is moderately elevated. The high facial index 91,1 is exceeded only by that of the Predominantly Nordic type. The upper face is particularly long. The upper facial index average demonstrates that this type has relatively the longest and narrowest upper face. Noses are a trifle long, probably in part an effect of advanced mean age and also they are a trifle broader that average. Thus the nasal index is also a little above average.

The Keltic type is very light-skinned, although exceeded in this respect by the three blond types. It falls below these types only in pronounced vascularity. The type is relatively low in freckling and also has fewer moles. All kinds of hair form occur, with low waves in the modal position. However, the Keltics present the strongest assemblage of straight-haired individuals to be found in any Irish type, save the Pure Nordic. Baldness and graying of head and beard are excessive in this type doubtless because of the high average age. The modal hair color (46.9%) is flat brown, but a strong minority (39.7%) has dark brown hair, and red-haired contingent amounts to 5.7%. In darkness of hair pigmentation, this type is exceeded only by the small group of Pure Mediterranean’s and by the large Nordic Mediterranean group.

All Keltics have pure blue or gray-blue eyes. Almost 54 per cent of Irish blue eyes belong to members of this Keltic type, although the type constitutes only 25.3% of the Irish type series. Irises with scalloped patterns reach their Irish maximum and clear irises are greatly in excess. External eye folds are slightly more that ordinarily common in this type. Upward slant of the eyes slits is more frequent in the Keltic type than in any other except the Pure Mediterranean. Variations from medium height of eye openings, when they occur at all, are low more that is ordinarily common, but these are not characteristics. This type has a higher percentage of persons with pronounced brow ridges that any other Irish morphological type. Foreheads incline toward the more sloping forms. Nasal depressions tend to be deep; straight nasal profiles slightly exceeded the convex form. Membranous lips are rather more than ordinarily thin. Teeth loss, wear, face shortening by tooth wear, and caries are at the maxima in these Keltics, but, reasonably, this condition must be attributed to the high mean age of the type. The Keltic type is average in frontal projection of the molars and is high in medium lateral projection. Gonial angles are infrequently prominent. Hollowness of the temporal region is a distinct feature as is also marked occipital protrusion. Although lambdoid flatting occurs in nearly three-fourths of the Keltics, this feature is less common in the Keltic morphological type that in any other. Occipital flattening is relatively infrequent.

 

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April 22, 2015

H. G. Wells – “The main races of man kind” from his “The outline of history”

Filed under: Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 8:57 pm

Figure 109

Figure 109: Heads of Australoid Types

It is only in the last fifty or sixty years that the varieties of men came to be regarded in this light, as a tangle of differentiations, recently arrested or still in progress. Before that time students of mankind, influenced, consciously or unconsciously, by the story of Noah and the Ark and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, were inclined to classify men into three or four great races and they were disposed to regard these races as having always been separate things, descended from originally separate ancestors. They ignored the great possibilities of blended races and of special local isolations and variations. The classification has varied considerably, but there has been rather too much readiness to assume that mankind must be completely divisible into three or four main groups. Ethnologists (students of race) have fallen into grievous disputes about a multitude of minor peoples, as to whether they were of this or that primary race or ?mixed?, or strayed early forms, or what not. But all races are more or less mixed. There are, no doubt, four main groups, but each is a miscellany, and there are little groups that will not go into any of the four main divisions.

Figure 112

Figure 112: Negro Types

Subject to these reservations, when it is clearly understood that when we speak of these main divisions we mean not simple and pure races, but groups of races, then they have a certain convenience in discussion. Over the European and Mediterranean area and western Asia there are, and have been for many thousand years, white peoples, usually called the CAUCASIANS, subdivided into two or three subdivisions, the northern blonds or Nordic race, an alleged intermediate race about which many authorities are doubtful, the so- called Alpine race, and the southern dark whites, the Mediterranean or Iberian race; over eastern Asia and America a second group of races prevails, the MONGOLIANS, generally with yellow skins, straight black hair, and sturdy bodies; over Africa, the NEGROES, and in the region of Australia and New Guinea the black, primitive AUSTRALOIDS. These are convenient terms, provided the student bears in mind that they are not exactly defined terms. They represent only the common characteristics of certain main groups of races; they leave out a number of little peoples who belong properly to none of these divisions, and they disregard the perpetual mixing where the main groups overlap.

Figure 113a

Figure 113a: Mongolian Types

Figure 113b

Figure 113b: Caucasian Types

Source & Whole book: here.

April 18, 2015

Russian plates of Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces

Filed under: -Plates, -Slavs, Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 7:00 am

Anthropometric research of male population of the Great Russian Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces – Zograf, 1892

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April 12, 2015

Middle eastern studies of Henry Field

Filed under: Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 5:41 pm
  • “Contributions to the anthropology of Iran (1939)”, download here.
  • “The anthropology of Iraq. The Upper Euphrates (1940)”, download here.
  • “Arabs of central Iraq, their history, ethnology, and physical characters (1935)”, download here.

April 4, 2015

Racial types of Makedonia

Filed under: Indo-Europeans, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 6:40 pm

From Heinrich Schade’s study on Macedonia (Anthropologische Untersuchungen in Ostmazedonien und Kruševo).

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Classification of the studied groups:

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April 1, 2015

The Ainu Group at the Saint Louis Exposition By Frederick Starr

Filed under: Asia, Physical anthropology — Ariets @ 2:01 pm

The physical characters of the Ainu and the Japanese differ profoundly. The Ainu present a peculiar and strongly marked type. On the whole they are short; Batchelor gives 5 ft. 4 in. as the average stature for men and 5 ft. 1 y2 in. or 5 ft.

2 in. as the average for women. It is true, however, that stature varies considerably with locality — the men of Shiraoi being relatively tall and well built, those of Piratori medium, and those of Ishikari smaller and badly developed. The Ainu skin, hough dark, is white, not yellow or brown; the color appears darker than it really is because the Ainu rarely bathe. The hair is abundant both on the body and the head, and is wavy; the color is commonly black, though it may be dark-brown or even reddish; like wavy hair everywhere, it presents an elliptical, not a circular, cross-section. The beard in males is strong and abundant. The features are those of the white race rather than the yellow; the nose is prominent and well formed, the mouth is strong; the lips firm. The eyes are brown, sometimes even light brown. Mark these characters well; compare them with those of the Japanese. How profound the difference. The white skin, abundant body hair and beard, the hair wavy and of elliptical section, the horizontal eye full of expression and fire, the features combined into a strong relief — these are in strong contrast to the yellow-brown skin, hairless face and body, straight and round hair, oblique eyes and flat face of the Japanese. In all these respects in which the Ainu differs so profoundly from the Japanese, he resembles us, the whites of European race.

They are often called “the hairy Ainu” and we consider the term just. It is true that their proximity to the smooth-bodied yellow Asiatics has made their hairiness conspicuous by contrast. It is true that many writers, who have spoken of “fur” and “missing links,” have overstated facts; but it is also true that notably hairy bodies are the rule among the males. Individual Russians are no doubt common, who are as hairy as the average Ainu, but we believe firmly that taken en masse the Ainu are more hairy than the Russians, and probably the hairiest people on the globe. Of course, the Ghiliaks, living on the Asiatic mainland and undoubtedly related with them, present the same peculiarity. Hitchcock gives a lot of excellent data in regard to Ainu hairiness.

As different are the Japanese and Ainu in language. Years ago, Basil Hall Chamberlain drew up a detailed comparison between the two, pointing out fifteen points of difference, and he might have extended the list indefinitely. Nor are the differences he indicates of trifling significance. On the contrary tbey are vital and concern the most important constructional matters. Thus, in the Ainu, verbs have true passive forms like those of European languages, the Japanese in its most earnest effort to express a passive cannot get rid of an active viewpoint; the Ainu has many reflective verbs, the Japanese has none; “Ainu pronouns are used at every turn like the pronouns of modern European languages,” Japanese has no real and simple pronouns; in Ainu “honorifics” are lacking, in Japanese they abound. Mr. Batchelor’s little Grammar of the Ainu Language is interesting reading, even if it does not convince the reader that Ainu is an “Aryan language.” Years ago the Japanese government of the Hokkaido published Mr. Batchelor’s A Dictionary of the Ainu, now long out of print. During the time that has since elapsed he had added enormously to the work and his present manuscript represents the labor of a quarter of a century. It is now complete and ought to be printed without delay. As long as it remains in manuscript it is in danger; once lost, it could never be replaced^ even by the author, for the use of Ainu as a speech is passing.

Who are the Ainu? Where did they come from? What is their past? They are surely a white people, not a yellow. They are more our brothers, though they live so far away, than brothers of the Japanese, to whom, in place, they are so near. That is not to say that all men are not brothers; our meaning we think clear. We, white men, are fond of assuming an air of great superiority, when we speak of other peoples. We take it for granted that all white men are better than any red ones, or black ones, or yellow ones. Yet here we find a white race that has struggled and lost! It has proved inferior in life’s battle to the more active, energetic, progressive, yellow people, with which it has come in contact. It may be that the Ainu are but a little fragment of a once I wide-spread Asiatic white race. The Ghiliaks, the Mao-tse (“hairy”) of China, some small populations of southeastern Asia and the curious nonaggressive Todas of India with their great beards and strange customs, may be other fragments of that same old population. We cannot assert it; study and comparison will be necessary before the assertion would be warranted; but we believe such comparison may prove what we suggest. Should it do so, that old white race was broken and submerged by a great flood of active yellow Asiatics.

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